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SEA UN CIENTIFICO CON LA BIBLIA: GALILEO GALILEI
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Reply  Message 1 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999  (Original message) Sent: 06/12/2015 17:28

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Reply  Message 43 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 28/12/2017 02:16
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 28/12/2017 02:46
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Reply  Message 45 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 14/03/2018 19:19
STEPHEN HAWKING NACIO A LOS 300 AÑOS EXACTOS DE LA MUERTE DE GALILEO
 
Stephen Hawking
Físico teórico
Stephen William Hawking ​​ fue un físico teórico, astrofísico, cosmólogo y divulgador científico británico. Wikipedia
 
Fallecimiento14 de marzo de 2018, Cambridge, Reino Unido
CónyugeElaine Mason (m. 1995–2006), Jane Wilde Hawking (m. 1965–1995)
 
Resultado de imagen para GALILEO
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Galileo Galilei
Astrónomo
Galileo Galilei ​​ fue un astrónomo, filósofo, ingeniero, ​​ matemático y físico italiano, relacionado estrechamente con la revolución científica. Eminente hombre del Renacimiento, mostró interés por casi todas las ciencias y artes. Wikipedia
 
Fecha de nacimiento15 de febrero de 1564, Pisa, Italia
Fallecimiento8 de enero de 1642Arcetri
ParejaMarina Gamba


Reply  Message 46 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 14/03/2018 20:45
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Reply  Message 47 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 16/03/2018 16:05
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Reply  Message 48 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 05/06/2018 23:38
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Respuesta  Mensaje 59 de 61 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 23/05/2018 15:34
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Respuesta  Mensaje 60 de 61 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 24/05/2018 15:38
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Respuesta  Mensaje 61 de 61 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 02/06/2018 22:32
BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 01/06/2018 10:36
Otro dato interesante es que Herodes, un edomita, le corta la cabeza a Juan el Bautista, en su mismo día de cumpleaños, osea que es en el marco al día de su nacimiento. Es obvia la referencia esoterica y masónica al sexo femenino. Herodes, es el antitipo de Aman, un amalecita, también descendiente de Edom, que conspira contra el pueblo judío en el libro de Esther/Ishtar. Mardoqueo//Marduk es una referencia a Marte. 
 
 
Respuesta Eliminar Mensaje  Mensaje 129 de 134 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 01/06/2018 11:04
Incluso Betsabé o casa de saba, descendiente de Cam, es la madre de Salomón. Nimrod, Semiramis y Thamus/Marte es una referencia al pacto de Génesis 9:11, con referencia a la sangre o linaje. Esto explica el porqué del nexo con el planeta rojo. En el santoral católico el día de Betsabé es el mismo 4 de julio, independencia de EEUU en Filadelfia. Está todo interconectado. Usted usa la cabeza señor Rolmen??? El narcisismo es el mayor enemigo del Grial. Saba es descendiente de Cam, con fuerte nexo con Etiopia e incluso la reina de Saba, ADONDE el señor hace referencia en Mateo 12:40,42 en el marco a la señal de Jonas/paloma/Columba/ Columbia/ Río Magdalena.
 
 
Respuesta Eliminar Mensaje  Mensaje 130 de 134 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 01/06/2018 11:21
La transfiguración tiene referencia al mismo paralelo 33, como nexo con la torre de Babel o Migdal/Magdala que es un portal o agujero de gusano conectado con el espacio tiempo. Esto explica incluso el nexo Marte con el 33, la gran pirámide, el 911, el apollo 11-17, el colisionador de hadrones y el Vaticano. Es obvia la conexión extraterrestre en este MARCO. Por eso la relación del camino de Santiago, el 25 de julio con León San Marcos/Marte/guerra. El nexo insisto, es la referencia 911 con la iglesia copta en Alejandría, Egipto. El Cairo significa Marte. Esto explica la relación con el complejo Gizeh-Orion. El día de San Marcos es el día 227 copto. Esto también explica porque la relación de Roswell con el Rancho Magdalena, el monte manzano, la transfiguración y el paralelo 33. Es obvio en este marco que Elias, Juan el Bautista es un nuevo Elías y Moisés fueron trasladados en el tiempo en la transfiguración. 
Resultado de imagen

 
Respuesta Ocultar Mensaje Eliminar Mensaje  Mensaje 30 de 32 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 02/06/2018 23:59
Resultado de imagen para tower magdalene babel

 
Respuesta Ocultar Mensaje Eliminar Mensaje  Mensaje 31 de 32 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 03/06/2018 00:40
Resultado de imagen para tower magdalene babel

 
Respuesta Ocultar Mensaje Eliminar Mensaje  Mensaje 32 de 32 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 05/06/2018 19:31
 BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 04/06/2018 21:38
Rolmen, baja el ego y usa la cabeza y no como Herodes, que por causa de un culo, le corto la cabeza a Juan el Bautista. Me parece que el culo es lo que te tiene mal porque noto que no usas la cabeza. Voy a tratar de ser lo más sencillo posible. En la mitología Perseo es una referencia a Cristo y Andrómeda de María Magdalena. Perseo le corta la cabeza a Medusa, nexo con la SERPIENTE, osea a Génesis 3:15. Es el antitipo de David, que siendo niño, le corto la cabeza a Goliat, justamente un gigante. Hay una relación con la cabeza de Juan Marcos, que está separada actualmente, del resto de su cuerpo. Esto explica la relación de Marcos/Marte con la vara oculta encontrada el 25 de julio de 1976, el día de Santiago, nexo con la transfiguración. Esto explica el nexo APOLO/Marte, 20 de julio de 1969/1976 con el Viking. Amigo Rolmen, si no querés usar la cabeza, no es mi culpa.


Respuesta Eliminar Mensaje  Mensaje 50 de 66 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 04/06/2018 21:51
Guerra/Marte/Apolo/marcos/sangre/linaje. Te juro por Dios que no se si tú problema es bajo coeficiente intelectual o narcisismo. Ya no se que herramienta usar para que entiendas algo que un niño lo puede entender. La misma manzana es una referencia al castillo San Angelo del VATICANO que tiene forma pentagonal, al igual que la manzana, que también es una referencia a Miguel, relacionado justamente con la guerra en apocalipsis 12.Esto explica el nexo APOLO 11 con la reina Sofía de España, el 22 de julio de 1969 y 1977, en el mismo día de María Magdalena. APOLO y Sofía tienen origen griego. El narcisismo no te deja usar la cabeza Rolmen.


Respuesta Eliminar Mensaje  Mensaje 51 de 66 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 04/06/2018 22:11
La referencia del pentágono encontrado en Marte/Marzo/Pascua/manzana/fertilidad/número de oro/1.618033 tiene referencia a Washington/guerra/Marte/MARCOS/Apolo/Horus/Thamus, etc y el mismo castillo San Angelo o Miguel, el Perseo/Hercules nexo con las dos columnas de Hércules con referencia al dolar/911/Atlántida/manzana de oro y de plata/proverbios 25:11. Todo tiene referencia a Marte ubicado promedio a 1.618 órbitas de la tierra/sol promedio. Es en Mateo 16:18 que Cristo relaciona a Marte, el Vaticano, Pedro, la manzana y la transfiguración nexo Mateo 16 y 17. Por eso es que Pedro relaciona a Marcos con Babilonia en 1 de Pedro 5:13. Babilonia estaba en el mismo paralelo que el monte hermon, osea el 33, ADONDE fue la transfiguración. Señor Rolmen, si usted no quiere estudiar y usar la cabeza, por lo menos declararse agnostico y dejé de ser tan narcisista. Con todo respeto lo saludo cordialmente.
e: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 04/06/2018 22:11
La referencia del pentágono encontrado en Marte/Marzo/Pascua/manzana/fertilidad/número de oro/1.618033 tiene referencia a Washington/guerra/Marte/MARCOS/Apolo/Horus/Thamus, etc y el mismo castillo San Angelo o Miguel, el Perseo/Hercules nexo con las dos columnas de Hércules con referencia al dolar/911/Atlántida/manzana de oro y de plata/proverbios 25:11. Todo tiene referencia a Marte ubicado promedio a 1.618 órbitas de la tierra/sol promedio. Es en Mateo 16:18 que Cristo relaciona a Marte, el Vaticano, Pedro, la manzana y la transfiguración nexo Mateo 16 y 17. Por eso es que Pedro relaciona a Marcos con Babilonia en 1 de Pedro 5:13. Babilonia estaba en el mismo paralelo que el monte hermon, osea el 33, ADONDE fue la transfiguración. Señor Rolmen, si usted no quiere estudiar y usar la cabeza, por lo menos declararse agnostico y dejé de ser tan narcisista. Con todo respeto lo saludo cordialmente.


Respuesta Eliminar Mensaje  Mensaje 53 de 66 en el tema 
De: BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 04/06/2018 22:20
El mismo día de María Magdalena, el 22 de julio es una referencia a la gran pirámide, el número de oro y Marte ubicado a 227000000 km promedio. No hay peor ciego, que el que viendo, no quiere ver. 22/7 es equivalente a 3.14, osea el Pi.

Reply  Message 49 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 07/03/2019 17:33
Resultado de imagen para scala contarini del bovolo venecia

Reply  Message 50 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 07/03/2019 18:07
Basílica de la Santa Croce donde se encuentra el sepulcro de Galileo Galilei ... que se supone fue una donación de un fragmento de la Santa Cruz por parte del ...
 
Galileo Galilei (Pisa, Toscana; 15 de febrero de 1564​-Arcetri, Toscana; 8 de enero de ... Por mediación de este, el pequeño Galileo accedió al convento de Santa María de Vallombrosa de Florencia y recibió una ...... Un mausoleo será erigido en su honor el 13 de marzo de 1736 en la iglesia de la Santa Cruz de Florencia.
Estudiantes doctorales‎: ‎Giuseppe Biancani‎, ‎B...
Nacionalidad‎: ‎Súbdito del Gran Ducado de To...
Nacimiento‎: ‎15 de febrero de 1564​; ‎Pisa‎, To...
Lugar de sepultura‎: ‎basílica de la Santa Cruz, ...
 
Tumba de Galileo. La basílica de la Santa Cruz (en italiano, Basilica di Santa Croce) es una destacada basílica ...
Estilo(s)‎: ‎gótica‎, renacentista y neogótico (fach...
Materiales‎: ‎Mármol y ladrillo
Construcción‎: ‎1294-1385; 1853-1863 (fachada); ...
Arquitecto(s)‎: ‎Arnolfo di Cambio‎; Niccolò Matas ...

Reply  Message 51 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 08/03/2019 17:06
Resultado de imagen para star venice galileo

Reply  Message 52 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 08/03/2019 17:25

Galileo introduces his Telescope there

Galileo introduces his telescope to the Doge Leonardo Donato in 1609
Galileo introduces his telescope
The 4 faces of the Bell tower of Saint-Mark correspond in 4 cardinal points. It is there that Galileo introduced his Telescope to the Senate of Venice and to the Doge. 

Thanks to the intervention of his friend Paolo Sarpi, Galileo was invited to introduce his telescope in Venice. 

August 21st, 1609 Galileo is at the top of the Bell tower with the Doge Leonardo Donato and of members of the Senate. 

The senator Antonio di Gerolamo Priuli left a description. 

Thanks to this demonstration Galileo was named professor to the University of Padua and accepted a 1,000 florin pension a year. 

Saint-Mark Bell Tower campanile The Loggia by Sansovino (Photograph 1870)
Loggia by Sansovino (Photograph 1870)
 

At the Foundation, The Loggia

At the beginning of the XVIth century, the lower part of the Bell tower’s raw stones was not in harmony with splendor besides of the Place Saint-Mark. 

Sansovino was in charge of decoration: 
« In this work the artist revealed all his genius. 

Nothing was more delightful than the small square building, dressed in marble and bronzes encircled by statues. 

It was by 1540 when it this leader carried out his work that one does not grow tired of admiring. 

One cannot imagine something so gracious and delicate, as well harmonized as this kind of small palace in miniature which they name the Loggia. First the Loggia was intended to act as meeting room to the noblemen Venetians until 1610. 

But, lastly, Procurators of Saint-Mark occupied it, and it is from there that they ordered the guard during the meetings of the Large Council. »
Driou. 1861 Travel in Venice.

With its Bronze doors and Relics

Campanile Bell Tower Saint-Mark Venice italy bronze doors of Antonio Galli in 1870
The bronze doors of Antonio Galli
The bronzed doors at the entrance of the Loggia sculpted in 1734 by Antonio Galli

« One can regard the Loggetta as one of the vastest reliquaries of the world: there are pieces of the true crucifix displayed, various instruments of Passion of Our Lord, the knife which was of use for him during the Last Supper, the holy remains of John the Baptist, the handwritten Gospel of Saint-Mark, etc. »
Jules Leonard Belin - 1843

You can see a detail of the bronze doors of the loggia opposite completed by Antonio Galli. 

Campanile Bell Tower Saint-Mark Venice italy bronze doors of Antonio Galli in 1870 - Detail
Doors of Antonio Galli - Detail
The doors of course each have their lion of Saint-Mark. 

Unavoidable in this place of the city of Venice! 

In the Summit, an Angel Pushed by the Wind

At the top of the Bell tower of Saint-Mark a gold covered angel stands which turns to the favor of the wind. 

Our angel is more now well updated with an antenna lightning conductor, anti-pigeons on each one of its wings, the whole without forgetting wire fixed between its wings... to prevent the angel from flying away? All the same, it is Venetian! 

The Angel of the Campanile of Saint-Mark
The Angel of the Campanile of Saint-Mark
In fact, grieved, they did not tell us the cell phone number of the Angel! 

When the Elevator did not exist …

« They arrive at the summit by a soft slope, by a true track, because the staircase is joined, constructed in bricks and devoid of degrees. »
Louise Collet. Italy of the Italians, on 1862

« Square like a keep, it is only possible to reach the deck by a soft slope with one broad step along each angle of the wall. »
Driou. 1861 Travel in Venice

« As Giralda of Séville, the Bell tower does not have staircase: ascent takes place by a ramp which they could climb up on horseback, so much the slope is soft [...] In every landing a small murderer, played on one of the faces of the tower, lets filter a sufficient light. 

Having taken up enough for a long time, they reach the deck, where the bells are. 

Columns of green and red marble support four arcades on every section of the Bell tower and let view stretch in the four points of the skyline; a spiral staircase allows to rise, up to the foot of the gold angel even more high but it is an useless tiredness, because the complete panorama of Venice takes place from this first station. » 
Theophile Gautier - Italia, on 1855

It seems that Napoleon would have climbed it up on horseback there in 1807

The Five Bells of the Bell tower

Bell of the Campanile Saint-Mark
Bell of the Campanile Saint-Mark
In the past they regulated the manifestations of public life. Each bell had a particular function. 

Each having a personal “voice” loaded with significance for the Venetians. 

Marangona is the biggest and the only bell to survive the collapse of the Bell tower in 1902. 

It marked the start and the end of works of the day. She gave the first announcement of calling together the meetings of the Big Council.Detail of a bell of the Campanile
Detail of a bell of the Campanile
Trotteria Rang immediately after the Marangona to tell the Patricians to hurry “on the double” hurry by signaling an emergency meeting of Big Council. 

Nona rings midday. 

Mezza Terza, or Pregadi, announced the meetings of the Senate. 

Renghiera or Maleficio gave the signal of capital executions. 

Detail of a bell of the Campanile Saint-Mark bell tower
Detail of a bell of the Campanile
« In the sound of the bell of Terza, the leader of the bowmen entered, and says to me that he had order to put me under Lead. »
Casanova. History of my life. (Arrest of Casanova).

« The bells of San Marco gave the sign of angelic Salutation, and their powerful tinklings dilated in broad waves over the mirror of the basin, vibrated in the yards of ships, spread on the infinite lagoon. 

Of San Giorgio Maggiore, San Giorgio dei Greci, of degli San Giorgio Schiavoni, of San Giovanni in Bragora, of San Moisè, Salute, Redentore, and of close in close by all domain of the Evangelist, up to the distant towers of the Madonna dell' Orto, San Giobbe, Sant' Andrea, voices of bronze answered, became confused in the single huge chorus, spread on the mute assemblage of stones and waters the single huge cupola of invisible metal vibrations of which seemed to communicate with the sparkling of the first stars. 

These sacred voices gave one infinite idea of greatness to the City of Silence. »
Gabriele d'Annunzio. The Fire.

The Flight of the Angel

The opening ceremony of the festivities of Carnival was marked by “svolo dell'Angelo”, the flight of the Angel, where an audacious acrobat went down on a tightened rope between the platform of the Bell tower and the Loggia of the Ducal Palace, where the Doge attended the stage. 

The audacious Angel is now replaced with a Dove filled with confetti which it drops during its descent on the crowd gathered on Piazzetta. 

The flight of the Dove inaugurates Carnival. 

The Suffering of Cheba

In the middle of the south face of the Bell tower there was in the past a beam which showed outdoors: they suspended a wooden animal box reinforced by metal there in which they locked up the priests guilty of delinquency. 

Saint-Mark Bell tower at night
Saint-Mark Bell tower at night
They remained so hanging, dangled by day and by night with the movement of the wind, during heat or bad weather. 

The length of this mortifying exhibition was variable. 

They accepted their meal (bread and water) by means of a rope; this suffering was happily abolished in 1518

The Headlight of Venice

« Dominated itself by its high-pitched roof, overseen by gold angel, this Bell tower seems to the headlight of Venice, because it orders all buildings. »
Driou. Travel in Venice.

« The pyramid of the Bell tower, very high, scintillating among the silent constellations in the night breast, recalled on the intoxicated multitude of clamor the immensity of blue silence, navigator at the end of the lagoon where from this light appeared to him as a new headlight. »
Gabriele d'Annunzio. The Fire.

https://www.visit-venice-italy.com/bell-tower-venice-italy/campanile-saint-mark-loggia-galileo-venice.htm

Reply  Message 53 of 57 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 08/03/2019 17:37

Galileo and the Telescope

Michael Fowler, UVa  Physics

 

Copernicus Challenges Ptolemy’s Scheme

Ptolemy’s picture of the solar system was almost fully accepted for the next fourteen hundred years, to be challenged by Copernicus (real name: Nicolaus Koppernigk) a mathematician and astronomer with a Polish father and a German mother, in 1530. 

Copernicus’ picture of the solar system had the sun at the center, and the earth went around it, as did the other planets. 

We show here the picture from his original publication.  Notice that the only exception to the rule that everything goes around the sun is the moon, which continues to go around the earth.  One objection to the picture was that if the earth was indeed just another planet, how come it was the only one with a moon?

Other objections were based on the Aristotelian point of view—it was difficult to believe that all the other planets were composed of aither, and the earth of the other four elements, if they were all behaving in so similar a fashion.  A further objection, which had long ago been raised by Aristotle to the idea of a rotating earth, was that the stresses would cause it to fly apart, and furthermore, anything thrown in the air would land far to the west. 

Despite these problems, Pope Clement VII approved of a summary of Copernicus’ work in 1530, and asked for a copy of the full work when it was available.  This was not until 1543, the year Copernicus died. 

As Copernicus’ new picture of the universe became more widely known, misgivings arose.  The universe had after all been created for mankind, so why wasn’t mankind at the center?  An intellectual revolutionary called Giordano Bruno accepted Copernicus’ view, and went further, claiming that the stars were spread through an infinite space, not just on an outer sphere, and there were infinitely many inhabited worlds.  Bruno was burned at the stake in 1600. 

The real breakthrough that ultimately led to the acceptance of Copernicus’ theory was due to Galileo, but was actually a technological rather than a conceptual breakthrough.  It was Galileo’s refinement and clever use of the telescope that persuaded people that the moon was a lot like the earth, and in some ways, so were the planets. 

The Evolution of the Telescope

(This section is mostly just a summary of Van Helden’s excellent Introduction to  Sidereus Nuncius, University of Chicago Press, 1989)

The first known use of a magnifying glass to aid in reading was in the 1200s, by Roger Bacon at Oxford.  It proved a boon to aging scholars, many of whom had been forced to retire while still relatively young.  The idea spread throughout Europe, and Italian craftsmen, were making glasses for old men before 1300, (lens means lentil in Italian, so called because of the shape of the pieces of glass used) and for the myopic young not until a hundred and fifty years later.  The reading glasses for the old men, who were longsighted, were convex lenses, (bulging in the middle like () ), whereas the glasses required by the shortsighted young were concave lenses, thinner in the middle than at the edges like )( , and hence more difficult to make and not so robust.  The first time, as far as we know, that anyone put two lenses together to make a telescope-like optical instrument was in 1608, in Holland.  The inventor of an opera-glass like telescope was called Lipperhey.  He was unable to get a patent, however, because his invention was deemed too easy to reproduce.  Perhaps the reason it had not been done before was that to get magnification, one needs a concave lens stronger than the convex lens being used with it, and commonly the lenses in wide use were the other way around. 

Galileo found out about this invention in the spring of 1609, and immediately set about improving it.  He saw it as a possible way out of his financial difficulties.  He was an oldest son, and so was responsible for his younger sisters’ dowries.  He also had three children of his own, by his mistress.  At the time, he was a Professor of Mathematics in the University of Padua, in the Venetian Republic.  He soon put together a spyglass with a magnification of three, which many other people had already done.  Galileo was an excellent experimentalist, and working with different lenses, he realized that the magnification was proportional to the ratio of the power of the concave (eyepiece) lens to the convex (more distant) lens.  In other words, to get high magnification he needed a weak convex lens and a strong concave lens.  the problem was that the opticians only made glasses in a narrow range of strengths, and three or so was the best magnification available with off the shelf lenses.  Galileo therefore learned to grind his own lenses, and by August, he had achieved about ninefold linear magnification.  This was an enormous improvement over everything else on the market.  Galileo therefore approached the Senate of Venice to demonstrate his instrument.  Many senators climbed the highest belltowers in Venice to look through the glass at ships far out at sea, and were impressed by the obvious military potential of the invention. 

Galileo then wrote a letter to the Doge:

Galileo Galilei, a most humble servant of Your Serene Highness, being diligently attentive, with all his spirit, not only to discharging the duties pertaining to the lecturing of mathematics at the University of Padua, but also to bringing extraordinary benefit to Your Serene Highness with some useful and remarkable invention, now appear before You with a new contrivance of glasses, drawn from the most recondite speculations of perspective, which render visible objects so close to the eye and represent them so distinctly that those that are distant, for example, nine miles appear as though they were only one mile distant.  This is a thing of inestimable benefit for all transactions and undertakings, maritime or terrestrial, allowing us at sea to discover at a much greater distance than usual the hulls and sails of the enemy, so that for two hours or more we can detect him before he detects us... 

Galileo concludes the letter by asking for tenure:

....(the telescope is) one of the fruits of the science which he has professed for the past 17 years at the University of Padua, with the hope of carrying on his work in order to present You greater ones, if it shall please the Good Lord and Your Serene Highness that he, according to his desire, will pass the rest of his life in Your service. 

It is nice to report that Galileo was granted tenure, and a reasonable salary, but—the bad news—with a proviso that further raises would not be forthcoming. 

Mountains on the Moon

Galileo’s first major astronomical discovery with the telescope was that the Moon’s surface is mountainous, and not a perfect sphere as had always been assumed (see his drawings in Sidereus Nuncius).  He built a convincing case for the reality of the mountains by sketching the appearance of parts of the Moon’s surface at different times of the month, that is, under different angles of lighting, and showing how the light and shadow seen could be simply and naturally accounted for topographically, rendering the prevailing theory at the time, that the variations in light arose from something inside a perfect sphere, a cumbersome and unappealing alternative.  This caused an uproar.

From the National Central Library of Florence (BNCF).

He was able to estimate the height of the mountains on the moon by seeing how far into the dark part bright spots could be discerned. 

At half moon, a little geometry is enough to calculate the heights! Galileo himself worked an example: suppose a bright spot, presumably an illuminated mountaintop, is visible one-twentieth of a moon diameter into the dark side, at half-moon.  Then the picture is as shown here (and is taken from Sidereus Nuncius).  The light from the sun fully illuminates the right-hand half of the moon, plus, for example, the mountaintop at D.  (GCD is a ray from the sun.) If the base of the mountain, vertically below D, is at A, and E is the moon’s center, this is exactly the same problem as how far away is the horizon, for a person of given height on a flat beach.  It can be solved using Pythagoras’ theorem as we did for that problem, with the center of the moon E one of the points in the triangle, that is, the triangle is EDC. 

A problem with asserting the existence of mountains is the apparent smooth roundness of the edge of the Moon, for which Galileo had two arguments.  First, ranges behind those on the edge would tend to fill in the gaps.  This is correct.  Second, maybe things were fuzzed out by the Moon’s atmosphere.  This is wrong. 

Galileo’s next major discovery began with his observation on January 7, 1610, of what he took to be a rather odd set of three small fixed stars near Jupiter, and, in fact, collinear with the planet.  These stars were invisible to the naked eye.  He looked again at Jupiter on successive nights, and by the 15th had realized that he was looking at moons of Jupiter, which were going around the planet with periods of the order of days.  This caused even more consternation than the demystification of the Moon.  Seven was a sacred number, and there were seven planets, wanderers, or moving stars.  Jupiter’s moons spoiled this.  Furthermore, they suggested that it was o.k.  to go in a circle about something other than the center of the universe, i.e.  the Earth.  This made Copernicus’ argument, that the Moon goes around the Earth and the Earth around the Sun, more plausible. 

Again, Galileo’s grantsmanship is admirable.  In a masterstroke of public relations, he named the satellites after the Medici family, Dukes of Tuscany, where he applied for the position of mathematician to the court.  He sent his most recent 20X telescope to the Duke, so that he could peruse the stars named after him and his brothers, and emphasized its military applicability.

http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/galtel.htm

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