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GIZE, STONEHENGE, CHICHEN ITZA, ETC,ETC: NUEVA ZELANDA-MAORI-PLEIADES ARE CALLED MATARIKI
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999  (Original message) Sent: 26/06/2012 21:26
 

Heliacal rising

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The heliacal rising of a star (or other body such as the moon, a planet or a constellation[1]) occurs when it first becomes visible above the eastern horizon for a brief moment just before sunrise, after a period of time when it had not been visible.[2]

Each day after the heliacal rising, the star will rise slightly earlier and remain visible for longer before the light from the rising sun makes it disappear (the sun appears to drift eastward relative to the stars by about one degree a day along a path called the ecliptic). Over the following days the star will move further and further westward (about one degree per day) over the dome of the pre-dawn sky, until eventually it is no longer visible in the sky at dawn because it has already set below the western horizon. This is called the cosmical setting.[3] The same star will reappear in the eastern sky at dawn approximately one year after its previous heliacal rising. Because the heliacal rising depends on the observation of the object, its exact timing can be dependent on weather conditions.[4]

Some stars, when viewed from a particular latitude on Earth, will not have a heliacal rising or setting. Circumpolar stars remain above the horizon throughout the whole year, making them always visible in the sky at dawn. Conversely, some stars are never seen in some locations. For example, the North Star is not visible in Australia and the Southern Cross is not seen in Europe, because they always stay below the horizon.

Constellations containing stars that rise and set were incorporated into early calendars or zodiacs. The ancient Egyptians based their calendar on the heliacal rising of Sirius and devised a method of telling the time at night based on the heliacal risings of 36 stars called decan stars (one for each 10° segment of the 360° circle of the zodiac/calendar). The Sumerians, the Babylonians, and the ancient Greeks also used the heliacal risings of various stars for the timing of agricultural activities. To the Māori of New Zealand, the Pleiades are called Matariki and their heliacal rising signifies the beginning of the new year (around June).


The Mapuche called the Pleiades Ngauponi which in the vicinity of the we tripantu (mapuche new year) will disappear by the West, lafkenmapu or ngulumapu, peering at dawn to the East, a few days before the birth of new life in nature. Heliacal rising of Ngauponi , i.e. appearance of the Pleiades by the horizon over an hour before the Sun aproximately 12 days before the winter solstice announced We tripantu


The corresponding rising of a celestial body above the eastern horizon at nightfall is called its acronychal rising.



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Reply  Message 2 of 4 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 26/06/2012 21:32

Matariki

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Matariki, the Māori name for the Pleiades (pictured).
An infrared image revealing interstellar detail.

In the Māori language Matariki is both the name of the Pleiades star cluster and also of the season of its first rising[1] in late May or early June – taken as the beginning of the new year.[2] Similar words occur in most Polynesian languages, deriving from Proto-Polynesian *mataliki, meaning minute, small, and the use of the term for the Pleiades constellation is also ancient and has been reconstructed to Eastern Oceanic.[3][4]

Contents

 [hide

[edit] Māori traditions

The constellation was important for navigation and timing the seasons. The first rising of the Pleiades and of Rigel (Puanga in Māori) occurs just prior to sunrise in late May or early June. The actual time for the celebration of Matariki varies, some iwi (tribe or clan) celebrate it immediately, others wait until the rising of the next full moon, or the dawn of the next new moon – and others use the rising of Puanga/Rigel in a similar way.[5][6]

In traditional times, Matariki was a season to celebrate and to prepare the ground for the coming year. Offerings of the produce of the land were made to the gods, including Rongo, god of cultivated food. This time of the year was also a good time to instruct young people in the lore of the land and the forest. In addition, certain birds and fish were especially easy to harvest at this time.

The name Matariki is used also for the central star in the cluster, with the surrounding stars named Tupu-a-nuku, Tupu-a-rangi, Waiti, Waita, Waipuna-a-rangi and Ururangi.[7]

[edit] Recent revival

Since The Māori Language Commission began a move in 2001 to "reclaim Matariki, or Aotearoa Pacific New Year, as an important focus for Māori language regeneration" it has increasingly become common practice for various private and public institutions to celebrate Matariki[8][9] in a range of ways[10] and over the period of a week or month anywhere from early June to late August

[edit] National holiday proposals

With the wider recognition there has been proposal to make Matariki an official holiday in New Zealand – in particular former Māori Party MP Rahui Katene's private member's bill Te Ra o Matariki Bill/Matariki Day Bill, drawn from the ballot in June 2009.

The Bill would have fixed the date of a public holiday using the New Moon in June[11] however this was later changed to the new moon of the helical rising of Matariki when the bill was drawn a month later and set down for introduction into Parliament.[12] Mayor of Waitakere City Bob Harvey supported the call to make Matariki a public holiday to replace Queen's Birthday,[13] along with the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand, which found none of New Zealand's local authorities held celebrations for Queen's Birthday, but many held celebrations for Matariki.[14] However, the Bill itself did not propose abolishing Queen's Birthday, and was voted down at its first reading.[15]

As part of the NationalMāori Party agreement subsequent to the New Zealand general election, 2011, both parties agreed to support "[a] cultural heritage bill to recognise Matariki/Puanga, and to honour the peace-making heritage established at Parihaka."[16]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "... in New Zealand it was the heliacal rising of that group that marked the new year", The Astronomical Knowledge of the Maori, Elsdon Best
  2. ^ "Winter stars", Te Ara website
  3. ^ Polynesian Lexicon Project Online, entries *mata-liki.1 and *mata-liki.2
  4. ^ "On Stars, and Star Lore", The Maori: Yesterday and To-day, James Cowan, 1930
  5. ^ "Stars are set for a happy Maori New Year", Tariana Turia on the Maori Party website
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ "Stars signal life cycle". Te Ao Maori. June 2005. p. 23 (p 2 of the PDF). http://www.ngaituhoe.com/files/te_ao_maori_jun05.pdf. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  8. ^ "Sky Tower Lights Up to Celebrate Matariki", SKYCOTY press release
  9. ^ "Matariki Festival @ Te Papa"
  10. ^ "Libraries celebrate Matariki with higher interactivity", Christchurch City Council
  11. ^ Tim Selwyn, Tumeke! blog 18 June 2009 Online
  12. ^ "Matariki holiday bill to go before Parliament". Stuff.co.nz. NZPA. 22 July 2009. http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/politics/2664039/Matariki-holiday-bill-to-go-before-Parliament. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "Mayor Joins Call For Matariki Public Holiday". Scoop.co.nz. 22 June 2009. http://scoop.co.nz/stories/AK0906/S00280.htm. 
  14. ^ "No Celebrations For Queen's Birthday". Scoop.co.nz. 29 May 2009. http://scoop.co.nz/stories/PO0905/S00419.htm. 
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ "Relationship Accord and Confidence and Supply Agreement with the Māori Party". Scoop.co.nz. 11 December 2011. http://img.scoop.co.nz/media/pdfs/1112/Maori_Party_agreement11_Dec.pdf. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  17. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matariki

Reply  Message 3 of 4 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 02/10/2015 00:35

Reply  Message 4 of 4 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 19/08/2019 03:11

Dunedin, New Zealand

One of the more remote seven hill cities in our list, Dunedin doesn’t have hills – they mean serious business.  One hill has a slope of concrete called Baldwin street running down it, making it the steepest street in the world.  These are former volcanic crags, and some of the more famous are Mount Cargill, Flagstaff Hill, Saddle Hill, Signal Hill, and Harbour Cone.

https://www.plumdeluxe.com/city-of-seven-hills

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