The MRO 2.4-meter (7.9 ft) telescope is a Nasmyth design on an azimuth-elevation (az-el) mount. The telescope is capable of slew rates of 10 degrees per second, enabling it to observe artificial objects in low Earth orbit. The telescope is also used for asteroid studies and observations of other solar system objects.The MRO 2.4-meter achieved first light on October 31, 2006, and began regular operations on September 1, 2008, after a commissioning phase that included tracking near-Earth asteroid 2007 WD5 for NASA.
The telescope's primary mirror has a complicated history. It was built by Itek as part of a competition for the contract for the Hubble mirror (although it has a different prescription than the one used to construct the Hubble). When Perkin-Elmer was chosen instead as the Hubble contractor, the mirror was passed to a classified Air Force project. When this project was in turn discontinued, the mirror was transferred to the Magdalena Ridge Observatory, along with a blank for the secondary.
As of May 2008, the facility is under a multi-year contract with NASA to provide follow-up astrometry and characterization data on near-Earth asteroids and comets as part of Spaceguard, and also collaborates with the Air Force to track and characterize satellites in GEO and LEO orbits. On October 9, 2009, New Mexico Tech scientists used instruments on the MRO 2.4-meter and at the Etscorn Campus Observatory to observe controlled impacts of two NASA Centaur rockets at the southern polar region of the moon as part of the LCROSS Project.
On October 23, 2015, it was announced that the MRO telescope will receive funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in early 2016 to monitor the launch and re-entry of commercial space vehicles from Spaceport America.
The Magdalena Ridge Optical Interferometer (MROI) is an optical and near infraredinterferometer under construction at MRO. When the MROI is completed, it will have ten 1.4 m (55 in) telescopes located on three 340 m (1,120 ft) arms. Each arm will have nine stations where the telescopes can be positioned, and one telescope can be positioned at the center. The telescopes and their enclosures will be moved with a customized crane. Light from the telescopes' primary mirrors will be directed along the arms to the Beam Combining Facility (BCF). These pipes will be evacuated of all air in order to reduce distortions. Inside the BCF, the light will first travel through extensions of the pipes in the Delay Line Area, which will bring the light beams into phase. Then light will exit the vacuum pipes in the Beam Combining Area (BCA), where the light will be directed into one of three permanent sensors, or to a temporary instrument on a fourth table. The light will strike a total of eleven mirrors before entering a sensor.
The basic design of MROI was completed in 2006. Construction of the facility began in August 2006 with the BCF building, which was completed in 2008. In July 2007, the contract for the design of the ten 1.4 m telescopes was awarded to Advanced Mechanical and Optical Systems S.A. (AMOS) of Belgium. In 2009 the design of the infrastructure of interferometer arms was completed, as was the design for the telescope enclosures. In 2010 construction of the arms began. Also in 2010 the first delay line was installed in the BCF.
On October 19, 2015, New Mexico Tech signed a five-year, $25 million cooperative agreement with the Air Force Research Laboratory to support continued development of the interferometer at the observatory. Dr. Van Romero, Vice President of Research at Tech, said the new funding will allow the completion of three telescopes, mounts and enclosures on the mountaintop facility.
New Mexico Exoplanet Spectroscopic Survey Instrument
The New Mexico Exoplanet Spectroscopic Survey Instrument (NESSI) is a ground-based instrument specifically designed to study the atmospheres of exoplanets. The $3.5 million instrument is the first purpose-built device for the analysis of exoplanet atmospheres, and is expected to have a powerful impact on the field of exoplanet characterization.
The Principal Investigator is Michele Creech-Eakman at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, working with seven co-investigators. The NESSI instrument was mounted on the observatory's 2.4 meter telescope. The instrument's first exoplanet observations began in April 2014.
4. SCALA CONTARINI DEL BOVOLO: 45.434838, 12.334694
Ya aviso que no es nada fácil de encontrar, de hecho, es uno de esos rincones que pasan totalmente desapercibidos a menos que sepas de su existencia. Normalmente, todos los palacios tienen dos entradas, una principal que da hacia el Gran Canal y que es más espectacular, y otra secundaria que era usada por el servicio. Pues bien, este es de los pocos palacios en los que su entrada secundaria es casi más bonita que la principal, todo gracias a una maravillosa escalera de Caracol que hace las delicias de los descubridores viandantes (Bovolo significa Caracol).
Cerca de este Palacio se encuentra el famoso teatro de La Fenice, donde han sonado las Óperas italianas más importantes de la historia.
Escondida en un laberinto de calles y canales, a pocos pasos de Campo Manin, en uno de los principales itinerarios turísticos venecianos, surge una joya arquitectónica caracterizada de un estilo entre renacimental (por la utilización de algunos elementos), gótica (por la técnica de costrucción) y veneto-bizantina (por la forma): la Scala Contarini del Bovolo.
La escalera a espiral más importante y prestigiosa de Venecia, fue encargada su realización por Pietro Contarini a finales del 1400, con el objetivo de decorar la fachada del colindante Palazzo San Paternian de propiedad de la ilustre familia veneciana. La realización de esta ópera, no tenía al inicio un verdadero motivo funcional, consistía simplemente en un acto de prestigio, se buscaba únicamente aumentar la popularidad y prestigio del clan familiar.
La creación de la escalera ha tenido una resonancia tan fuerte que llevó a la ciudadanía a dar un nombre característico a la familia, como “Contarini del Bovolo” (por la forma particular de la escalera a forma de caparazón de caracol, que en veneciano se dice “bovolo”). El pórtico en el segundo piso de la Scala del Bovolo conduce a una sala prestigiosa del Palazzo Contarini (Sala del Tintoretto) en donde se encuentran expuestas las obras provenientes de la colección de arte del IRE, que está constituída de pinturas, esculturas y objetos de un significado importante de época veneciana con los más ilustres protagonistas del panorama artístico veneciano del 1500 al 1700.
Cerrado: 1 de Enero, 15 agosto, 1 noviembre, 25 y 26 diciembre. Cierre extraordinario: 9 abril de las 10:00 a las 12,30
La ventanilla cierra 30 minutos antes de que cierre el museo.
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Menores hasta12 años
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Galileo introduces his telescopeThe 4 faces of the Bell tower of Saint-Mark correspond in 4 cardinal points. It is there that Galileo introduced his Telescope to the Senate of Venice and to the Doge.
Thanks to the intervention of his friend Paolo Sarpi, Galileo was invited to introduce his telescope in Venice.
August 21st, 1609 Galileo is at the top of the Bell tower with the Doge Leonardo Donato and of members of the Senate.
The senator Antonio di Gerolamo Priuli left a description.
Thanks to this demonstration Galileo was named professor to the University of Padua and accepted a 1,000 florin pension a year.
Loggia by Sansovino (Photograph 1870)
At the Foundation, The Loggia
At the beginning of the XVIth century, the lower part of the Bell tower’s raw stones was not in harmony with splendor besides of the Place Saint-Mark.
Sansovino was in charge of decoration:
« In this work the artist revealed all his genius.
Nothing was more delightful than the small square building, dressed in marble and bronzes encircled by statues.
It was by 1540 when it this leader carried out his work that one does not grow tired of admiring.
One cannot imagine something so gracious and delicate, as well harmonized as this kind of small palace in miniature which they name the Loggia. First the Loggia was intended to act as meeting room to the noblemen Venetians until 1610.
But, lastly, Procurators of Saint-Mark occupied it, and it is from there that they ordered the guard during the meetings of the Large Council. » Driou. 1861 Travel in Venice.
With its Bronze doors and Relics
The bronze doors of Antonio GalliThe bronzed doors at the entrance of the Loggia sculpted in 1734 by Antonio Galli.
« One can regard the Loggetta as one of the vastest reliquaries of the world: there are pieces of the true crucifix displayed, various instruments of Passion of Our Lord, the knife which was of use for him during the Last Supper, the holy remains of John the Baptist, the handwritten Gospel of Saint-Mark, etc. » Jules Leonard Belin - 1843
You can see a detail of the bronze doors of the loggia opposite completed by Antonio Galli.
Doors of Antonio Galli - DetailThe doors of course each have their lion of Saint-Mark.
Unavoidable in this place of the city of Venice!
In the Summit, an Angel Pushed by the Wind
At the top of the Bell tower of Saint-Mark a gold covered angel stands which turns to the favor of the wind.
Our angel is more now well updated with an antenna lightning conductor, anti-pigeons on each one of its wings, the whole without forgetting wire fixed between its wings... to prevent the angel from flying away? All the same, it is Venetian!
The Angel of the Campanile of Saint-MarkIn fact, grieved, they did not tell us the cell phone number of the Angel!
When the Elevator did not exist …
« They arrive at the summit by a soft slope, by a true track, because the staircase is joined, constructed in bricks and devoid of degrees. » Louise Collet. Italy of the Italians, on 1862
« Square like a keep, it is only possible to reach the deck by a soft slope with one broad step along each angle of the wall. » Driou. 1861 Travel in Venice
« As Giralda of Séville, the Bell tower does not have staircase: ascent takes place by a ramp which they could climb up on horseback, so much the slope is soft [...] In every landing a small murderer, played on one of the faces of the tower, lets filter a sufficient light.
Having taken up enough for a long time, they reach the deck, where the bells are.
Columns of green and red marble support four arcades on every section of the Bell tower and let view stretch in the four points of the skyline; a spiral staircase allows to rise, up to the foot of the gold angel even more high but it is an useless tiredness, because the complete panorama of Venice takes place from this first station. » Theophile Gautier - Italia, on 1855
It seems that Napoleon would have climbed it up on horseback there in 1807.
The Five Bells of the Bell tower
Bell of the Campanile Saint-MarkIn the past they regulated the manifestations of public life. Each bell had a particular function.
Each having a personal “voice” loaded with significance for the Venetians.
Marangona is the biggest and the only bell to survive the collapse of the Bell tower in 1902.
It marked the start and the end of works of the day. She gave the first announcement of calling together the meetings of the Big Council. Detail of a bell of the CampanileTrotteria Rang immediately after the Marangona to tell the Patricians to hurry “on the double” hurry by signaling an emergency meeting of Big Council.
Nona rings midday.
Mezza Terza, or Pregadi, announced the meetings of the Senate.
Renghiera or Maleficio gave the signal of capital executions.
Detail of a bell of the Campanile
« In the sound of the bell of Terza, the leader of the bowmen entered, and says to me that he had order to put me under Lead. » Casanova. History of my life. (Arrest of Casanova).
« The bells of San Marco gave the sign of angelic Salutation, and their powerful tinklings dilated in broad waves over the mirror of the basin, vibrated in the yards of ships, spread on the infinite lagoon.
Of San Giorgio Maggiore, San Giorgio dei Greci, of degli San Giorgio Schiavoni, of San Giovanni in Bragora, of San Moisè, Salute, Redentore, and of close in close by all domain of the Evangelist, up to the distant towers of the Madonna dell' Orto, San Giobbe, Sant' Andrea, voices of bronze answered, became confused in the single huge chorus, spread on the mute assemblage of stones and waters the single huge cupola of invisible metal vibrations of which seemed to communicate with the sparkling of the first stars.
These sacred voices gave one infinite idea of greatness to the City of Silence. » Gabriele d'Annunzio. The Fire.
The Flight of the Angel
The opening ceremony of the festivities of Carnival was marked by “svolo dell'Angelo”, the flight of the Angel, where an audacious acrobat went down on a tightened rope between the platform of the Bell tower and the Loggia of the Ducal Palace, where the Doge attended the stage.
The audacious Angel is now replaced with a Dove filled with confetti which it drops during its descent on the crowd gathered on Piazzetta.
The flight of the Dove inaugurates Carnival.
The Suffering of Cheba
In the middle of the south face of the Bell tower there was in the past a beam which showed outdoors: they suspended a wooden animal box reinforced by metal there in which they locked up the priests guilty of delinquency.
Saint-Mark Bell tower at nightThey remained so hanging, dangled by day and by night with the movement of the wind, during heat or bad weather.
The length of this mortifying exhibition was variable.
They accepted their meal (bread and water) by means of a rope; this suffering was happily abolished in 1518.
The Headlight of Venice
« Dominated itself by its high-pitched roof, overseen by gold angel, this Bell tower seems to the headlight of Venice, because it orders all buildings. » Driou. Travel in Venice.
« The pyramid of the Bell tower, very high, scintillating among the silent constellations in the night breast, recalled on the intoxicated multitude of clamor the immensity of blue silence, navigator at the end of the lagoon where from this light appeared to him as a new headlight. » Gabriele d'Annunzio. The Fire.