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From: BARILOCHENSE6999  (Original message) Sent: 07/10/2016 17:14
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Reply  Message 81 of 95 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 21/07/2017 00:46

Martin Gardner, puzzle master extraordinaire

Martin GardnerImage copyrightOTHER

The writer and puzzle master Martin Gardner, who died in 2010, was once said to have turned dozens of innocent youngsters into maths professors - and thousands of maths professors into innocent youngsters. Maths writer Colm Mulcahy looks back at the amazing career of a man who would have been 100 this week.

Let's warm up with three gems from the vaults:

1. What angle is made by the two red lines drawn on the two sides of the cube, as shown in the illustration?

cube 1

2. A logician visits a distant planet inhabited by two groups of aliens, compulsive liars and faithful truth-tellers. She comes to a fork in a road - one road goes to the left, the other to the right. She meets two aliens there, one a liar, the other a truth-teller... but she doesn't know which is which. The logician must ask just one Yes/No question to discover which road she should take to reach their leader. She thinks for a moment and then asks her question. What question might she have asked?

3. Imagine heating a metal ring enough so it expands. What happens to the hole, does it get bigger or smaller?

metal ringImage copyrightTHINKSTOCK

You may already know the answers to the above questions if you've read some of the 100 or so books written by the American man of letters and numbers, Martin Gardner (1914-2010). His works have long been popular with a variety of people, from science and maths types, to lovers of magic, enemies of pseudoscience, and aficionados of Lewis Carroll - Gardner's Annotated Alice, by far his best seller, has sold more than a million copies.

The most important thing about the three puzzles above is that you can work them out right now, if you have initiative and patience (and a little knowledge of physics). No mathematical training is required. There are some hints at the bottom of the page, and below that, the answers.

Gardner specialised in such puzzles, having studied closely the works of the masters of an earlier generation, England's Henry Dudeney and his American counterpart, Sam Loyd.

The reward for solving puzzles like these, unaided, is to experience priceless Aha! moments. "Googling it is not the Gardner way," says the philosopher Bob Crease in Physics World this month. "The Gardner way is to ignite your fascination so that you experience the pleasure of finding the answer yourself."

Gardner's writing has ignited many sparks over the decades, and even inspired a few scriptwriters fond of nerdy inside jokes. The logician puzzle above resurfaced (slightly repackaged) in the Pyramids of Mars episode of Dr Who, from October 1975. Maths writer Simon Singh, meanwhile, says some of the Simpsons writers - who occasionally slip hidden mathematical references into the storyline - were influenced by Gardner.

One of the last true polymaths, Martin Gardner is best remembered for the quarter century's worth of Mathematical Games columns he wrote for Scientific American magazine, where he injected a spirit of fun and play into a subject many associate with fear and drudgery. It went a lot further than puzzles - there was substance, depth and a fair share of mystery and wonder in the topics he wrote about.

Mandelbrot fractalImage copyrightSCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARYImage captionGardner's column introduced the world to Mandelbrot's fractals

His lifelong passions included conjuring, chess, wordplay, puzzles of all kinds, science (good, bad and bogus), philosophy and children's literature. He wrote about all of those, extensively, in essays, reviews and books, for a period of 80 years.


Reply  Message 82 of 95 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 21/07/2017 00:48
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 21/07/2017 22:41
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 21/07/2017 23:13
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Reply  Message 85 of 95 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 21/08/2017 19:01
El tunel del tiempo

El tunel del tiempo

El túnel del tiempo
Murray Leinster


El asunto del Túnel del tiempo comenzó, en lo que concierne a Harrison, con una serie de acontecimientos tan improbables que parecían una locura, pero que también parecieron inevitables. En un cosmos diseñado para que los seres humanos lo ocuparan, sin embargo debería haber alguna especie de salvaguardia contra las consecuencias de su idiotez. El Túnel del Tiempo pudo ser una de esas salvaguardias. Leinster escribió y publicó más de 1.500 cuentos y artículos durante el transcurso de su carrera. Escribió 14 guiones de películas y centenares de guiones de radio y obras teatrales para televisión, inspirando varias series incluyendo “Tierra de Gigantes” y “El Túnel del Tiempo”. Leinster comenzó a aparecer a finales de los años 1910 en revistas pulp como Argosy y después en Astounding Stories en los años 1930 con regularidad. Se le atribuye la invención de relatos de universos paralelos. Cuatro años antes de que saliera The Legion of Time de Jack Williamson, Leinster escribió su Sidewise in Time. Esta fue la primera vez que el extraño concepto de mundos alternativos apareció en la ciencia ficción moderna.


Reply  Message 86 of 95 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 27/08/2017 00:53


Thorne believes there could be another type of tunnel-like structure existing in the universe that could be used for a time travel portal. Wormholes, also called Einstein-Rosen Bridges, are considered to have the most potential for time travel if they do exist. Not only could they allow us to travel through time, they could allow us to travel many light-years from Earth in only a fraction of the amount of time that it would take us with conventional space travel methods.

Wormholes are considered possible based on Einstein's theory of relativity, which states that any mass curves spacetime. To understand this curvature, think about two people holding a bed sheet up and stretching that sheet tight. If one person were to place a baseball on the bed sheet, the weight of the baseball would roll to the middle of the sheet and cause the sheet to curve at that point.


Now, if a marble were placed on the edge of the same bed sheet it would travel toward the baseball because of the curve.

Imagining space as a curved, two-dimensional plane,

wormholes like this could be formed by two masses applying enough force on spacetime

to create a tunnel connecting distant points in the universe.

In this example, space is depicted as a two-dimensional plane rather than the four dimensions that actually make up spacetime. Imagine that this sheet is folded over, leaving a space between the top and bottom. Placing the baseball on the top side will cause a curvature to form. If an equal mass were placed on the bottom part of the sheet at a point that corresponds with the location of the baseball on the top, the second mass would eventually meet with the baseball. This is similar to how wormholes might form. 

In space, masses that place pressure on different parts of the universe could eventually come together to form a tunnel -- this is a wormhole. We could then travel from Earth to another galaxy and back relatively quickly (within a lifetime). For instance, let's picture a scenario in which we would want to travel to Sirius, a star that's seen in the Canis Major constellation just below Orion.


Sirius is about 9 light-years from Earth, which is about 54 trillion miles (90 trillion km).


Obviously, this distance would be far too great for space travelers to traverse and return in time to tell us about what they saw there. So far, the farthest people have traveled into space is to the moon, which is only about 248,548 miles (about 400,000 km) away from Earth. If we could find a wormhole that connected us to the space around Sirius, then we could cut the time considerably by avoiding the trillions of miles that we would have to cross with traditional space travel. 

So how does all of this relate to time travel? We'll find out in the next section.


Cosmic Strings

Yet another theory for how we might travel back and forth through time uses the idea of cosmic strings, proposed by Princeton physicist J. Richard Gott in 1991. These are - as their name suggests - string-like objects that some scientists believe were formed in the early universe. These strings may line the entire length of the universe and are under immense pressure - millions upon millions of tons.

These cosmic strings, which are thinner than an atom, would generate an enormous amount of gravitational pull on any objects that pass near them.


Objects attached to a cosmic string could travel at incredible speeds, and because their gravitational force distorts spacetime, they could be used for time travel. By pulling two cosmic strings close together, or one string close to a black hole, it might be possible to warp spacetime enough to create closed time-like curves. 

A spacecraft could be turned into a time machine by using the gravity produced by the two cosmic strings, or the string and black hole, to propel itself into the past. To do this, it would loop around the cosmic strings. However, there is still much speculation as to whether these strings exist, and if they do, in what form. Gott himself said that in order to travel back in time even one year, it would take a loop of string that contained half the mass-energy of an entire galaxy.


And, as with any time machine, you couldn't go back farther than the point at which the time machine was created. 

Time Travel Physics

As we discussed earlier, the theory of relativity states that as the velocity of an object nears the speed of light, time slows down. Scientists have discovered that even at the speeds of the space shuttle, astronauts can travel a few nanoseconds into the future. To understand this, picture two people, person A and person B. Person A stays on Earth, while person B takes off in a spacecraft.


At takeoff, their watches are in perfect sync. The closer person B's spacecraft travels to the speed of light, the slower time will pass for person B (relative to person A). If person B travels for just a few hours at 50 percent the speed of light and returns to Earth, it will be obvious to both people that person A has aged much faster than person B.


This difference in aging is because time passed much faster for person A than person B, who was traveling closer to the speed of light. Many years might have passed for person A, while person B experienced a time lapse of just a few hours. Find out more about this twin paradox in How Special Relativity Works.

Wormholes could allow you to travel into the past and the future.

If wormholes could be discovered, it might allow us to travel to the past as well as the future. Here's how it would work: Let's say the mouth of the wormhole is portable. Then person B in the example above, who traveled at 50 percent of light speed into space for a few hours, could carry one wormhole mouth into space, while the mouth at the opposite end of the wormhole would stay with person A on Earth.


The two people would continue to see one another as person B traveled into space. When person B returned to Earth a few hours later, a few years may have passed for person A. Now, when person A looks through the wormhole that traveled into space, that person will see him or herself at a younger age, the age he or she was when person B launched into space.


The cool thing about it is that the older person A would be able to step into the past by entering the wormhole, while the younger person B could step into the future.

Problems with Time Travel

If we are ever able to develop a workable theory for time travel, we would open up the ability to create very complicated problems called paradoxes. A paradox is defined as something that contradicts itself.


Here are two common examples:

  • Let's say, for the sake of argument, that you could travel back to a time before you were born. The mere fact that you could exist in a time before you were born creates a paradox. If you were born in 1960, how could you exist in 1955? 

  • Possibly the most famous paradox is the grandfather paradox. What would happen if a time traveler went back and killed one of his or her ancestors before the traveler was born? If the person killed his or her grandfather, then how could that person be alive to go back and kill his or her grandfather? If we could change the past, it would create an infinite number of paradoxes.

Another theory regarding time travel brings up the idea of parallel universes, or alternative histories. Let's say that you do travel back to meet your grandfather when he was a boy. In the theory of parallel universes, you may have traveled to another universe, one that is similar to ours, but has a different succession of events.


For instance, if you were to travel back in time and kill one of your ancestors, you've only killed that person in one universe, which is no longer the universe that you exist in. And if you then try to travel back to your own time, you may end up in another parallel universe and never be able to get back to the universe you started in.

The idea here is that every action causes the creation of a new universe, and that there are an infinite number of universes that exist. When you killed your ancestor, you created a new universe, a universe that was identical to your own up until the time you changed the original succession of events. 

Confused yet?


Welcome to the world of time travel. Just imagine how complicated the ticket prices will be.

Reply  Message 87 of 95 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 13/09/2017 14:25
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 13/09/2017 10:01
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 16/03/2018 15:18
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Reply  Message 89 of 95 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 27/05/2019 18:53
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Reply  Message 90 of 95 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 16/10/2019 18:41

Now it becomes somewhat clearer as to why there are 360 degrees in a circle. They are all expressing decimal parity of 9 which is to say; centre focused. Even if you halve 45 and so on you will get 22.5 = 9, 11.25 = 9, 5.625, 2.8125 = 9 and so on... The 9 is a self similar axis, the Z axis. The X and Y define the surface topology of the logarithmic spiral, while Z is the central third. 6 and 3 oscillating around nine.
And it’s probably 360 because 3 and 6 are the “nines”.
So that’s 3 dimensional, spatial orientation, what about the 4th dimension; time?

There are 24 hours in a day; 2+4 = 6
There are 60 minutes in an hour; 6+0 = 6
There are 60 second in a minute; 6+0 = 6
So the full revolution is a 6, half is 12 which is a 3. Around the 12 hour clock you constant 3,6,9 oscillation. 
3oclock, 6oclock, 9oclock, 12oclock= 3 then 15 = 6, 18 = 9.... 3,6,9,3,6,9,3,6 (8 45 degree movements)

Squeegee your third-fucking-eye-(Bill Hicks)


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