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General: John Mark as the Beloved Disciple
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999  (Original message) Sent: 25/06/2019 17:49

John Mark as the Beloved Disciple

A key proponent of the suggestion that John Mark was the beloved disciple is Pierson Parker, “John and John Mark” JBL 79 (1960): 97-110. He makes the following points:

  1. John Mark lived in Jerusalem (Acts 12:12) where the Fourth Gospel concentrates most of the activity of Jesus and the beloved disciple (97).
  2. John Mark was related to a Levite named Barnabas (Colossians 4:10; Acts 4:36) and may have mutilated his fingers to get out of his priestly duties (Mark’s Latin prologue in codex Toletanus). The Fourth Gospel is interested in the temple cult, the beloved disciple knows the high priest in John 18:15, and there is the tradition of Polycrates that “John” wore the priestly vestment (98).
  3. John Mark was a figure of means, befitting a Gospel that does not take as much interest in the poor and the elite circles of the beloved disciple (98).
  4. John Mark could be host of the last supper (98).
  5. John Mark was a companion of Paul and there is Pauline influence in the Fourth Gospel, though in the author’s distinct terminology (98-99).
  6. John Mark was a co-worker of Luke. The distinct agreements between the Gospels of John and Luke, as well as their differing wording and literary contexts, are due to two authors sharing oral traditions when they worked together (99-100).
  7. Just as Paul reconciled with Barnabas and John Mark after their dispute over Gentile “Judaizing” (cf. Acts 15:37-39; Gal 2:7; Col 4:10), the Fourth Gospel sides with the Gentile view of the controversy (100).
  8. John Mark ministered among the diaspora and the Fourth Gospel is the sole one to mention Greek-speaking Jews in the diaspora (John 7:35; cf. 12:20) (101).
  9. John Mark was a companion of Peter (Acts 12:12). The Fourth Gospel goes into the most detail about Peter and the beloved disciple is his constant companion (101).
  10. There is no reason to suppose (John) Mark waited to be Peter’s “interpreter” until late in Peter’s life (cf. Papias) and the Fourth Gospel aligns with Peter’s preaching in Acts (102).
  11. The discrepancy over whether (John) Mark wrote a Gospel after Peter’s death (cf. Irenaeus) or during Peter’s lifetime (cf. Clement of Alexandria) is due to the evangelist adding an addendum (John 21) after Peter died (102-3).
  12. The tradition that John Mark went to Alexandria accords with the Alexandrian theology of the Fourth Gospel (103).
  13. John Mark visited Ephesus, explaining the tradition of the evangelist John in Ephesus (103).

Parker turns to Papias where he points out that (John) Mark’s substandard order may reflect the Fourth Gospel’s departures from the Synoptic tradition based on his personal recollections (104). Against Papias’s statement that (John) Mark was not a witness of Jesus, Parker cites a line from the Muratorian Canon that “he was present at some events” and argues that Papias defended the Fourth Gospel against its detractors (105). Since Papias ascribes the observation about (John) Mark’s lack of order to the Elder John of Ephesus (note: Parker leans towards seeing the tradition that the Apostle John was in Ephesus as mistaken), John Mark and the Elder John must be separate individuals (110). He closes with one more list about the evangelist:

  1. He had a home near Jerusalem in John 19:27 (106).
  2. He was a young man cared for or “loved” by Jesus (106).
  3. His date for Easter was supported by Christians in Ephesus (106).
  4. He stresses eyewitness testimony and could be one of the eyewitness “ministers” of the word (cf. Luke 1:2; Acts 13:5) (106).
  5. He did not rely on written sources besides his memory (106).
  6. The Fourth Gospel took shape after Peter’s death when John Mark was old (106).
  7. The Fourth Gospel has a good grasp of Jewish and Pagan though (106-7).
  8. The Fourth Gospel is similar to Colossians in combating Gnostic ideas.

It could also explain the unanimous tradition that the author of the Gospel was John, even as the various figures named John became confused in the early church (107-8).

This theory coheres with the beloved disciple being an elite Jerusalem follower, but major flaws remain. There is no evidence in the New Testament that John Mark knew Jesus during his lifetime or that the house in Acts 12 was the locale of the last supper and it seems problematic to discern the identity of a character in one text from an entirely separate book (Acts). Papias clearly states that (John) Mark was not a witness like the beloved disciple but a second-hand reporter of Peter, which is why he was not able to get the “order” correct, while the fragmentary line in the Muratorian canon could refer to Peter as the subject. The early church followed Papias in linking Mark or Peter with the second canonical Gospel: Parker is not persuasive in dismissing Justin Martyr (Dialogue 106:3) and, while he notes that Jerome hesitatingly related John Mark of Acts to the second canonical Gospel (Commentary in Philemon 24) (109n.36), 1 Peter 5:13 was the more common proof-text in defending that Gospel’s authorship.

https://jesusmemoirs.wordpress.com/2016/04/19/john-mark-as-the-beloved-disciple/


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Reply  Message 2 of 9 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 25/06/2019 17:58

One of the common problems in dealing with the reconstruction of history is the use of limited information to make things fit. This can often lead to forced conclusions which, although theoretically plausible, require a straining of the available evidence. Sometimes, it is more appropriate to simply accept that we just don’t know.

Put another way, if time past is a jigsaw puzzle and we only have a handful of pieces, we shouldn’t assume that the ones we do have fit together perfectly. That said, it would be cowardly not to at least to attempt to rearrange the pieces we do have about the witness who wrote the Gospel of John to see if they fit together in some other coherent way.

In our quest to establish the authorship of John’s Gospel we identified a number of possible candidates in the attempt to solve the Problem of John. We have considered and ruled out John the ApostleJohn the Elder (a non-direct follower of Jesus) and the Johannine Community. As promised, I suggest a fourth: John Mark, described in Acts 13:5 as a hyperetai — in recognition of his qualification as a scribe or minister of the Word.

We know the following about John Mark from the New Testament:

  1. His mother Mary owns a large house in Jerusalem. This house plays host to “many believers” after the arrest of Peter (44AD); Acts 12:12
  2. He was a missionary with apostles Barnabus and Paul in Antioch, assisting as a scribe or minister of the Word; Acts 12:25
  3. After the trip to Pamphylia, he returns to Jerusalem (45AD); Acts 13:13
  4. His decision causes Barnabus and Paul to separate (49AD); Acts 15:37
  5. Barnabus and John Mark set sail together for Cyprus (49AD); Acts 15:39
  6. John Mark, Barnabus’ cousin, is with Paul in Rome and is anticipated to return to Asia Minor to minister there (60AD); Colossians 4:10
  7. John Mark is with Timothy in Ephesus (67AD); 2 Timothy 4:11

From these details, it is traditionally believed that John Mark:

  • was a young man or adolescent at the time of Jesus’ death;
  • was younger in relation to the Apostles Peter, James and John, Paul and Barnabus;
  • was part of a family who had a large house in central Jerusalem that likely hosted the Last Supper;
  • his family having wealth, he was likely trained as a Jewish scholar, and so would be more likely known amongst the Council of Jerusalem.

Of the four inferences drawn above, the first two are almost certain, and the second two are reasonable, if not conclusive, assumptions.

So, does John Mark fit the profile of the internal evidence — the information we have from the Bible about the first hand eye-witness author of the Fourth Gospel — we have already considered?

  • Present with Jesus at the Last Supper;
  • Likely to be known to the High Priest;
  • Aware of the involvement of Nicodemus in Jesus’ burial;
  • Able to outrun Peter to the tomb, but hesitant about entering.

The answer is Yes; or at the very least, he is a better fit than John the Apostle.

Why? Whilst both John Mark and John the Apostle were likely present with Jesus at the Last Supper, it is more probable that a wealthy young Jewish resident of Jerusalem knew the High Priest and was aware of the secretive actions of Nicodemus, one of the senior members of the Sanhedrin council, than a rough Galilean fisherman only in town for the Passover feast.

Turning to the external evidence — the non-biblical sources we have already looked at who comment about the author of the Fourth Gospel — does John Mark fit the profile?

  • Named as John in Ephesus along with Paul and Timothy; Ignatius
  • Named as John, a disciple of the Lord; Papias
  • Named as John, the author of a Gospel at Ephesus; Irenaeus
  • Lived in Ephesus at least until Trajan (98AD) as “a true witness of the tradition of the apostles”;  and named as John, witness and teacher, who died in Ephesus; Polycrates

Also Yes. John Mark is again a better fit, than John, Son of Zebedee. Both Ignatius and Irenaeus identify the gospel author John alongside Paul and Timothy whilst in Ephesus. This fits perfectly with the last letter we have from Paul, his 2nd letter to Timothy, in which he writes asking to send John Mark from Ephesus.

As a younger man than John the Apostle, he is more likely to have survived until the time of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 98AD. This would still have made him an incredible 75 or so years old.

It is also more plausible that it was John Mark, as a much younger man, who felt at ease in “leaning back against Jesus” and, when prompted by Peter about the betrayal, naïvely asked “Lord, who is it?” as opposed to the comparatively older John the Apostle.

Further, it is much more likely that it was John Mark who remained in his home town of Jerusalem during the arrest, trial and crucifixion of Jesus, in comparison with the Twelve who, apart from Peter, apparently fled after Jesus’ betrayal in Gethsemane.

You might also consider it far more likely that it was John Mark who outran Peter to the tomb on the third day, but hung back from entering first, either in youthful hesitation or as a mark of respect for his elder, rather than the man nicknamed a Son of Thunder.

Having journeyed from the foothills of the Himalayas we have nearly reached base camp. One more turn and, all being well, we should have established the historical likelihood of Jesus’ encounter with Pilate.

https://www.whatistruthbook.com/beloved-disciple-john-mark

Reply  Message 3 of 9 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 25/06/2019 18:13
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 21/09/2019 17:52
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 05/11/2021 00:48
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