The Golden Section (aka Golden Mean, and Golden Ratio) phys.org
We use math in architecture on a daily basis to solve problems. We use it to achieve both functional and aesthetic advantages. By applying math to our architectural designs through the use of the Golden Section and other mathematical principles, we can achieve harmony and balance. As you will see from some of the examples below, the application of mathematical principles can result in beautiful and long-lasting architecture which has passed the test of time.
Using Math in Architecture for Function and Form
We use math in architecture every day at our office. For example, we use math to calculate the area of a building site or office space. Math helps us to determine the volume of gravel or soil that is needed to fill a hole. We rely on math when designing safe building structures and bridges by calculating loads and spans. Math also helps us to determine the best material to use for a structure, such as wood, concrete, or steel.
“Without mathematics there is no art.” – Luca Pacioli, De divina proportione, 1509
Architects also use math when making aesthetic decisions. For instance, we use numbers to achieve attractive proportion and harmony. This may seem counter-intuitive, but architects routinely apply a combination of math, science, and art to create attractive and functional structures. One example of this is when we use math to achieve harmony and proportion by applying a well-known principle called the Golden Section
Math and Proportion – The Golden Section
Perfect proportions of the human body – The Vitruvian Man – by Leonardo da Vinci.
We tend to think of beauty as purely subjective, but that is not necessarily the case. There is a relationship between math and beauty. By applying math to our architectural designs through the use of the Golden Section and other mathematical principles, we can achieve harmony and balance.
The Golden Section is one example of a mathematical principle that is believed to result in pleasing proportions. It was mentioned in the works of the Greek mathematician Euclid, the father of geometry. Since the 4th century, artists and architects have applied the Golden Section to their work.
The Golden Section is a rectangular form that, when cut in half or doubled, results in the same proportion as the original form. The proportions are 1: the square root of 2 (1.414) It is one of many mathematical principles that architects use to bring beautiful proportion to their designs.
Examples of the Golden Section are found extensively in nature, including the human body. The influential author Vitruvius asserted that the best designs are based on the perfect proportions of the human body.
Over the years many well-known artists and architects, such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, used the Golden Section to define the dimensions and proportions in their works. For example, you can see the Golden Section demonstrated in DaVinci’s painting Mona Lisa and his drawing Vitruvian Man.
Famous Buildings Influenced by Mathematical Principles
Here are some examples of famous buildings universally recognized for their beauty. We believe their architects used math and the principals of the Golden Section in their design:
The classical Doric columned Parthenon was built on the Acropolis between 447 and 432 BC. It was designed by the architects Iktinos and Kallikrates. The temple had two rooms to shelter a gold and ivory statue of the goddess Athena and her treasure. Visitors to the Parthenon viewed the statue and temple from the outside. The refined exterior is recognized for its proportional harmony which has influenced generations of designers. The pediment and frieze were decorated with sculpted scenes of Athena, the Gods, and heroes.
Built on the Ile de la Cite, Notre Dame was built on the site of two earlier churches. The foundation stone was laid by Pope Alexander III in 1163. The stone building demonstrates various styles of architecture, due to the fact that construction occurred for over 300 years. It is predominantly French Gothic, but also has elements of Renaissance and Naturalism. The cathedral interior is 427 feet x 157 feet in plan. The two Gothic towers on the west façade are 223 feet high. They were intended to be crowned by spires, but the spires were never built. The cathedral is especially loved for its three stained glass rose windows and daring flying buttresses. During the Revolution, the building was extensively damaged and was saved from demolition by the emperor Napoleon.
Built in Agra between 1631 and 1648, the Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum designed by Ustad-Ahmad Lahori. This jewel of Indian architecture was built by Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife. Additional buildings and elements were completed in 1653. The square tomb is raised and is dramatically located at the end of a formal garden. On the interior, the tomb chamber is octagonal and is surrounded by hallways and four corner rooms. Building materials are brick and lime veneered with marble and sandstone.
Taj Mahal designed by Ustad-Ahmad Lahori
As you can see from the above examples, the application of mathematical principles can result in some pretty amazing architecture. The architects’ work reflects eye-catching harmony and balance. Although these buildings are all quite old, their designs have pleasing proportions which have truly passed the test of time.
In light of the above there seems little doubt that in general and in the present astronomical context in particular, Spira Solaris qualifies to be described numerically as "the One and the Many," the "One and the All," "the Alpha and the Omega," and also (from The Chaldean Oracles): "Fountain of Fountains, and of All Fountains, The Matrix of all Things." ..... Pythagoras said the sacred Tetractys is: ` the spring having the roots of ever-flowing nature.' .... The four parts of the Decad, this perfect number, are called number, monad, power and cube. And the interweavings and minglings of these in the origin of growth are what naturally completes nascent number; for when a power of a power; and a cube is multiplied on a cube, it is the power of a cube; and when a cube is multiplied on a cube, the cube of a cube; thus all numbers, from which arise the genesis of what arises, are seven: number, monad, power, cube, power of a power, power of a cube, and cube of a cube. ..... We have seen that the whole nature of things, all the essential properties of physis, were believed by the Pythagoreans to be contained in the tetractys of the decad; and it now appears that, just as we should expect, this ' fountain of ever-flowing nature' contains the periodic movement of life, evolving out of unity and reverting to unity again, in the recurrent revolution of a wheel of birth. It embodies the fundamental Dionysiac representation of palingenesia. But there is something more in it than this. Pythagoras inherited the music of Orpheus, as well as the reincarnation doctrine of Dionysus. From the Orphics he inherited also the doctrine of the fall of the soul from its first perfect state of union with the divine, its degradation into the darkness of this life and of the underworld, and its final restoration to peace and unity. Now, on the model of this doctrine of the fall of the soul, the Pythagorean philosophy must hold that all existence proceeds out of the One and returns to it again; and that the One alone is perfect, while the manifold world of visible body is a turbid medium of appearance, in which the one truth is half-revealed and half-concealed, as the divine soul is manifest in the flesh and yet obscured by it and degraded. There is thus, inherent in the representation handed down from Orphism to Pythagoras, not only the primitive wheel of birth, but another aspect of the movement of life, which is best described as a processional movement out of unity into plurality, out of light into darkness. This movement, also, must be revealed in the nature of numbers, and contained in the tetractys. Pythagoras found it in the procession of numerical series, the study of which he originated, thereby rounding the science of number. It is practically certain, also, that in music he discovered the ratios of the octave, the fifth, and the fourth, contained in the harmonic proportion 12: 8: 6. Now a progression like those contained in the tetractys of Plato's worldsoul --the series, 1: 2: 4: 8, 1: 3: 9: 27– is what the Pythagoreans called an harmonia; it is a continuous entity knit together by a principle of unity running through it, namely the logos or ratio (1/2 or 1/3) which links every term to its predecessor by the same bond. Both series, moreover, radiate from the One, which in Pythagorean arithmetic was not itself a number, but the source in which the whole nature of all numbers was gathered up and implicit. When we note, further, that every number is not only a many, but also one number, we can see how Pythagoras would find the whole movement of cosmic evolution contained in the procession of series, in which the One passes out of itself into a manifold, yet without losing all its unity, and a return from the many to the One is secured by that bond of proportion which runs, backwards and forwards, through the whole series and links it into a ' harmony.' It is thus that we must understand the doctrine that ' the whole Heaven is harmony and number.' The processional movement of physis is modelled upon that of soul, which falls from its first state of union with the divine, but yet remains linked to the One life by mysterious bonds, and can return to it again, purified by music. ...... As for the "geometric figure", that we may already have (whether applicable here or not) and although the concept of "organic motion" may strike some modern readers as strange, it is nevertheless an underlying feature in many ancient major works--the Timaeus of Plato especially. Here it may also be observed that by expressing the exponents of this short section of the Phi-series planetary framework in thirds, the sets [3, 6, 9 , [4, 8, 12] and [6, 12, 18] are also apparent--sets that may or may not be considered further with respect to other passages in Plato, etc. ...... It is in the same fashion that the Timaeus also tries to give a physical account of how the soul moves its body; the soul, it is there said, is in movement, and so owing to their mutual implication moves the body also. After compounding the soul-substance out of the elements and dividing it in accordance with the harmonic numbers, in order that it may possess a connate sensibility for 'harmony' and that the whole may move in movements well attuned, the Demiurge bent the straight line into a circle; this single circle he divided into two circles united at two common points; one of these he subdivided into seven circles. All this implies that the movements of the soul are identified with the local movements of the heavens. (Aristotle, On the Soul) ...... Mind is the monad, science or knowledge the dyad (because it goes undeviatingly from one point to another), opinion the number of the plane, sensation the number of the solid; the numbers are by him expressly identified with the Forms themselves or principles, and are formed out of the elements; now things are apprehended either by mind or science or opinion or sensation, and these same numbers are the Forms of things. Some thinkers, accepting both premises, viz. that the soul is both originative of movement and cognitive, have compounded it of both and declared the soul to be a self-moving number. (Aristotle, On the Soul) ...... Thus that in the soul which is called mind (by mind I mean that whereby the soul thinks and judges) is, before it thinks, not actually any real thing. For this reason it cannot reasonably be regarded as blended with the body: if so, it would acquire some quality, e.g. warmth or cold, or even have an organ like the sensitive faculty: as it is, it has none. It was a good idea to call the soul 'the place of forms', though (1) this description holds only of the intellective soul, and (2) even this is the forms only potentially, not actually. (Aristotle, On the Soul) ..... there will be a need for several sciences. The first and most important of them is likewise that which treats of pure numbers--not numbers concreted in bodies, but the whole generation of the series of odd and even, and the effects which it contributes to the nature of things. When all this has been mastered, next in order comes what is called by the very ludicrous name mensuration, but is really a manifest assimilation to one another of numbers which are naturally dissimilar, effected by reference to areas. Now to a man who can comprehend this, it will be plain that this is no mere feat of human skill, but a miracle of God's contrivance. Next, numbers raised to the third power and thus presenting an analogy with three-dimensional things. Here again he assimilates the dissimilar by a second science, which those who hit on the discovery have named stereometry [the gauging of solids], a device of God's contriving which breeds amazement in those who fix their gaze on it and consider how universal nature molds form and type by the constant revolution of potency and its converse about the double in the various progressions. The first example of this ratio of the double in the advancing number series is that of 1 to 2; double of this is the ratio of their second powers [ 4 ], and double of this again the advance to the solid and tangible, as we proceed from 1 to 8 [ 1, 2, 2^2, 2^3]; the advance to a mean of the double, that mean which is equidistant from lesser and greater term [the arithmetical], or the other mean [the harmonic] which exceeds the one term and is itself exceeded by the other by the same fraction of the respective terms--these ratios of 3 : 2 and 4 : 3 will be found as means between 6 and 2: why, in the potency of the mean between these terms [ 6 x 2 ], with its double sense, we have a gift from the blessed choir of the Muses to which mankind owes the boon of the play of consonance and measure, with all they contribute to rhythm and melody. So much, then, for our program as a whole. But to crown it all, we must go on to the generation of things divine, the fairest and most heavenly spectacle God has vouchsafed to the eye of man. And: believe me, no man will ever behold that spectacle without the studies we have described, and so be able to boast that he has won it by an easy route. Moreover, in all our sessions for study we are to relate the single fact to its species; there are questions to be asked and erroneous theses to be refuted. We may truly say that this is ever the prime test, and the best a man can have; as for tests that profess to be such but are not, there is no labor so fruitlessly thrown away as that spent on them. We must also grasp the accuracy of the periodic times and the precision with which they complete the various celestial motions, and this is where a believer in our doctrine that soul is both older and more divine than body will appreciate the beauty and justice of the saying that ' all things are full of gods ' and that we have never been left unheeded by the forgetfulness or carelessness of the higher powers. There is one observation to be made about all such matters. If a man grasps the several questions aright, the benefit accruing to him who thus learns his lesson in the proper way is great indeed; if he cannot, 'twill ever be the better course to call on God. Now the proper way is this--so much explanation is unavoidable. To the man who pursues his studies in the proper way, all geometric constructions, all systems of numbers, all duly constituted melodic progressions, the single ordered scheme of all celestial revolutions, should disclose themselves, and disclose themselves they will, if, as I say, a man pursues his studies aright with his mind's eye fixed on their single end. As such a man reflects, he will receive the revelation of a single bond of natural interconnection between all these problems. If such matters are handled in any other spirit, a man, as I am saying, will need to invoke his luck. We may rest assured that without these qualifications the happy will not make their appearance in any society; this is the method, this the pabulum, these the studies demanded; hard or easy, this is the road we must tread. (The Collected Dialogues of Plato) http://www.spirasolaris.ca/sbb4d.html
Albert Einstein (en alemán [ˈalbɛɐ̯t ˈaɪnʃtaɪn]; Ulm, Imperio alemán, 14 de marzo de ... En 1915 presentó la teoría de larelatividadgeneral, en la que reformuló por completo el concepto de gravedad. ...... Einstein, Albert (1905e) [manuscrito recibido27 de septiembre 1905], «Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem ...
Top 15 fun facts about Chile would provide you a totally different viewpoint about Chile - the world's largest producer and exporter of copper!
Are you currently planning a trip to Chile and would like to know really interesting information about that country you won’t find in any travel guide?
We collected the 15 most amazing and interesting facts about Chile you could think of so make sure to check them out. Do you know why NASA really likes the Atacama Desert in Chile for testing its Mars rovers or where the largest earthquake ever recorded took place? We tell you all the facts!
1. Due to its extreme dryness, the Atacama Desert in Chile is one of the best environments on Earth for testing the conditions of Mars. Even NASA Mars rovers are tested there as the Atacama Desert mimics the conditions of Mars as best as possible.
2. Chile is home to the Easter Island. It is most famous for its nearly 1,000 monolithic human figures called „moai“. They have been carved by the Rapa Nui people between the years 1250 and 1500.
3. Chile is the world’s longest country from north to south measuring at 2,653 miles (4,270 kilometers).
4. The origin of the word Chile is still unclear. Some people think it derives from the Native American word “chilli” which may mean “where the land ends” but others think it may come from a valley in Peru close to Chile named “Chili”.
5. The Atacama Giant in Chile is the largest prehistoric anthropomorphic figure in the world. The anthropomorphic geoglyph is located in the Atacama Desert, Chile and has a length of 390 feet (119 meters).
6. Chile has the largest permanent civilian settlement on the continent of Antarctica. It is called Villa Las Estrellas and it has a summer population of 150 and a winter population of 80.
7. The city of Ushuaia in Argentina claims to be the southernmost inhabited city in the world. Only Puerto Williams and Puerto Toro in Chile are more southern but do not have enough inhabitants to be considered as city.
8. In Chile wives and husbands do not share the same last name. Instead wives keep their maiden names.
9. At 3,324 feet (1,013 meters) in length the swimming pool at the San Alfonso del Mar resort in Algarrobo, Chile was the largest swimming pool by area in the world at the time of completion in 2006.
10. Pudús are the world’s smallest deer and can only be found in Chile and Argentina. They range in size only from 13 to 17 inches (32 to 44 centimeter).
11. The world’s largest earthquake ever recorded took place in Chile on May 22nd, 1960. It was assigned a magnitude of 9.5 and is known as the “Great Chilean Earthquake”.
12. The Atacama Desert in Chile is receiving less precipitation than any other desert in the world including the polar deserts. The average rainfall in some locations there is only about 0.04 inches (1 millimeter) in a year.
13. Of Chiles 5,100 species of flora and fauna more than 2,500 can be found nowhere else on Earth.
14. Found in Chile the “Chinchorro mummies” are the oldest artificially mummified human remains ever discovered. The oldest Chinchorro mummy found dates from around 5050 BC.
15. The Gran Torre Santiago tower in Santiago de Chile is the tallest building in South America. It measures 984 feet (300 meters) in height making it also the fourth-tallest building in the southern hemisphere.