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Reply  Message 1 of 25 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999  (Original message) Sent: 07/07/2013 03:54

Serpent Mound

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The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,348-foot (411 m)-long,[2] three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound located on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. Maintained within a park by the Ohio Historical Society, it has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of Interior. The Serpent Mound of Ohio was first reported from surveys by Ephraim Squire and Edwin Davis in their historic volume Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, published in 1848 by the newly founded Smithsonian Museum.

Researchers have attributed construction of the mound to three different prehistoric indigenous cultures. Although it was once thought to be Adena in origin, now based on the use of more advanced technology, including carbon dating and evidence from 1996 studies, many scholars now believe that members of the Fort Ancient culture built it about 1070 CE (plus or minus 70 years). There are still anomalies to be studied.[3] Serpent Mound is the largest serpent effigy in the world.[4]


Including all three parts, the Serpent Mound extends about 1,370 feet (420 m), and varies in height from less than a foot to more than three feet (30–100 cm). Conforming to the curve of the land on which it rests, with its head approaching a cliff above a stream, the serpent winds back and forth for more than eight hundred feet and seven coils, and ends in a triple-coiled tail. The serpent head has an open mouth extending around the east end of a 120-foot (37 m)-long hollow oval feature. Scholars posit that the oval feature symbolizes an egg, the sun, the body of a frog, or merely the remnant of a platform. The effigy's extreme western feature is a triangular mound approximately 31.6 feet (9.6 m) at its base and long axis. There are also serpent effigies located in Scotland and Ontario that are very similar.[5]


Map of the Great Serpent Mound

The dating of the design, the original construction, and the identity of the builders of the serpent effigy are three questions still debated in the disciplines of social science, including ethnology, archaeology, and anthropology. In addition, contemporary American Indians have an interest in the site. Several attributions have been entered by academic, philosophic, and Native American concerns regarding all three of these unknown factors of when designed, when built, and by whom.

Over the years, scholars have proposed that the mound was built by members of the Adena culture, the Hopewell culture, or the Fort Ancient culture. In the 18th century the missionary John Heckewelder reported that Native Americans of the Lenni Lenape (later Delaware) nation told him the Allegheny people had built the mound, as they lived in the Ohio Valley in an ancient time. Both Lenape and Iroquois legends tell of the Allegheny or Allegewi People, sometimes called Tallegewi. They were said to have lived in the Ohio Valley in a remotely ancient period, believed pre-Adena, i.e., Archaic or pre-Woodland period (before 1200 BCE). Because archaeological evidence suggests that ancient cultures were distinct and separate from more recent historic Native American cultures, academic accounts do not propose the Allegheny Nation built the Serpent Mound.[6]

Recently the dating of the site has been brought into question. While it has long been thought to be an Adena site based on slim evidence, a couple of radiocarbon dates from a small excavation raise the possibility that the mound is no more than a thousand years old. Middle Ohio Valley people of the time were not known for building large earthworks, however; they did display a high regard for snakes as shown by the numerous copper serpentine pieces associated with them.[7]

Radiocarbon dating of charcoal discovered within the mound in the 1990s indicated that people worked on the mound circa 1070 CE.[3]

Adena culture[edit]

Historically, researchers first attributed the mound to the Adena culture (1000 BCE - 1 CE). William Webb, noted Adena exponent, found evidence through carbon dating for Kentucky Adena as early as 1200 BCE. As there are Adena graves near the Serpent Mound, scholars thought the same people constructed the mound. The skeletal remains of the Adena type uncovered in the 1880s at Serpent Mound indicate that these people were unique among the ancient Ohio Valley peoples. It was more than 45 years before scholars paid sufficient attention to the Adena studies.

The Adena culture did build some nearby mounds, so for more than 125 years, many scholars thought they created the Serpent Mound as well. The Adena were renowned for their elaborate earthworks and their creation of "sacred circles" as part of their cosmology. An unrecorded number of their gravesites throughout the greater Ohio Valley were destroyed before any organized archeological supervision performed correct analysis of their contents.

Carbon-dating studies published in 1996 of material from the mound appeared to place the Serpent Mound construction as later than the span of the Adena.[3] This suggested that a people subsequent to the Adena may have built or refurbished the site for their own uses and purposes. Although a characteristic of excavation at most Adena mounds has been discovery of related artifacts, to date no cultural artifacts have been found within the Serpent Mound. This study and its inferences drew the attention of many experts and is further discussed below.

Fort Ancient culture[edit]

Squier and Davis's map from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 1848

Scholars currently think that the Fort Ancient culture (1000-1650 CE), an Ohio Valley-based, mound-building society, constructed Serpent Mound about 1070 CE. The Fort Ancient culture was influenced by the contemporary Mississippian culture society based along the mid-Mississippi River valley with its North American center at Cahokia (in present-day Illinois). The Mississippian culture had regional chiefdoms as far south as present-day Louisiana and Mississippi, as well as extending to western North Carolina and north to the Great Lakes area.

The Fort Ancient society, a protohistoric group, was named because they inhabited the ramparts of the large notched earthworks in Warren County, Ohio, commonly called "Fort Ancient". The earthwork had been built, however, by the early Hopewell culture (200 BCE-500 CE) at least 1,000 years prior to the arrival of the Fort Ancient culture. The Hopewell culture had abandoned the earthworks and disappeared long before the Fort Ancient peoples arose in the area.

In 1996 the team of Robert V. Fletcher and Terry L. Cameron (under the supervision of the Ohio Historical Society's Bradley T. Lepper) reopened a trench created by Frederic Ward Putnam of Harvard over 100 years before. They found a few pieces of charcoal in what was believed to be an undisturbed portion of the Serpent Mound. However, bioturbation, including burrowing animals, frost cracks, etc., can reverse the structural timeline of an earthen mound such as Serpent Mound. It can shift carbon left by a later culture on the surface to areas deep within the structure, making the earthwork appear younger.

When the team conducted carbon dating studies on the charcoal pieces, two yielded a date of ca. 1070 CE, with the third piece dating to the Late Archaic period some two thousand years earlier, specifically 2920+/-65 years BP (before the present). The third date, ca. 2900 BP, was recovered from a core sample below cultural modification level. The first two dates place the Serpent Mound within the realm of the Fort Ancient culture. The third dates the mound back to very early Adena culture or before.[8]

The Fort Ancient people could have been the builders of the Serpent Mound. Alternatively, they may have refurbished the earthwork for their own use in the same way that people today fix up old houses to make them suitable for occupation again. The rattlesnake is significant as a symbol in the Mississippian culture, which would help explain the image of the mound. But there is no sign or indication of a rattle.[8]

If this mound was built by the Fort Ancient people, it was uncharacteristic for that group. For example, the mound does not contain artifacts, although, like the Adena people, the Fort Ancient culture typically buried many artifacts in its mounds. In another difference, the Fort Ancient people did not usually bury their dead in the manner of the burials found in proximity to the effigy.[8]

One of the only other effigy mounds in Ohio, the Alligator Effigy Mound in Granville, was carbon dated to the Fort Ancient period.


Uktena design from a shell engraving found at the Spiro Site in Oklahoma

The Serpent Mound is the largest effigy mound in the world. While there are several burial mounds around the Serpent mound site, the Serpent site does not contain any human remains. It was not constructed for burial purposes.

The Cherokee relate the legend of the Uktena, a large serpent with supernatural appearance and power. The existence of the legend attests to the importance of the figure. Researchers have speculated that perhaps ancient native people created large totemic shrines that were built on platforms made of earth and stone. Such an effigy could have been destroyed by war or changes among inheriting cultures, with the result that only the platform (the mound) was left.[citation needed]


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Southwest Asia




Indus Valley

Maya pyramid-temple at Tikal, Guatemala (left); temple complex at Madurai, India. (120)

AD 1150 is the date of the completion of Angkor Wat, with undisputed archaeological evidence that the entire complex of monuments at Angkor was built over slightly more than four centuries between AD 802 and AD 1220. (161)

...several extremely important and, we would have thought, glaringly obvious parts of the puzzle do still remain completely unsolved. These include: 1 an explanation for the amazing suddenness with which the sacred domain of Angkor was brought to life at the beginning of the ninth century AD; 2 an explanation for why it was developed so methodically and so industriously, at such vast expense, for approximately 420 years; 3 an explanation for why this staggering and unprecedented burst of temple- building, greater in magnitude and quality than anything in India, took place in a remote backwater of rural Cambodia; and 4 an explanation for why all new temple-building at Angkor suddenly ceased in the thirteenth century after the death of Jayavarman VII and never resumed - even though the site continued to be occupied until at least the sixteenth century. The notion that the rulers of Angkor were working to an imported master-plan that they were for some reason obliged to fulfil within a specific time-frame provides a complete explanation for all of these mysteries. The existence of a similar plan at Giza in 2500 BC would also explain the mystery of the sudden appearance there of the Great Pyramids of Egypt and of the associated smaller structures at Saqqara containing the Pyramid Texts. These massive cultural achievements of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Dynasties were without precedent (and without sequel. And just like the pyramids, temples, bas reliefs and inscriptions of Angkor, they were completed within a span of approximately 420 years (from 2575 to 2152 BC). (161)

We suspect that those who fully understood the Angkor monuments were not 'believers' but 'adepts', high initiates in a lost system of cosmic wisdom, who would have come to the Bayon in search of the final mysteries. As such, through diligent inquiry, they would of course have already been equipped to 'go down to any sky' - i.e. to make the precessional calculations that would allow them to visualize the positions of important stars in former epochs. In a general way, they would have long since realized that the layout of the Angkor monuments was intended to draw their attention to the sky-region around the celestial north pole - notably, as we have seen in previous chapters, to stars in the constellations of Cygnus, Ursa Minor, Ursa Major, the Corona Borealis and Draco ... especially Draco. In order to have discovered so much they would have had to work their way back, again just as we have done, to the spring equinox in 10,500 BC (although, of course, they would have used a different dating system). And they would have realized that an observer looking north at the moment of sunrise would have seen a perfect meridian-to-meridian match between the patterns of the stars in the sky and the temples on the ground. In the process of mentally 'winding the stars back' until the correlation was achieved such adepts would inevitably have discovered what we can so easily confirm on our computer screens today: the slow, cyclical rotation of the celestial north pole around the 'heart' of the constellation of Draco, i.e. the ecliptic north pole. It is this 'heart', this abstract point in space that finds its terrestrial counterpart at Angkor in the great pyramid of the Bayon...(161)





South America


Although they were master builders, most Inka lived in rural villages, not great metropolises. Typical Inka residential units were rectangular walled houses of stone or adobe, subdivided into smaller units. Most public constructions were in the form or palaces temples granaries, fortresses, barracks, and highway stations. The skill used in these constructions is amazing, considering the simple tools employed. The Inka cut stones into huge blocks simply by chipping and abrading them with harder stones, and they then fitted them together (without the use of mortar) so precisely that, as the cliché goes, a knife blade could not be inserted between them. (52)





The capital city of Cuzco was an orderly arrangement of houses, monumental buildings, and streets, well-provided with a municipal water and drainage system. The great temple of Qori Kancha here had exterior walls measuring sixty-eight by fifty-nine meters and a semi-circular annex that rose to a height of more than thirty-four meters. A gold frieze about a meter wide ran along the exterior wall, and the entranceway was heavily sheathed in gold plate. Many other structures at the capital were lavishly decorated with gold and silver. (52)


…there is a legend that has been told by the people living around Lake Titicaca since the time of the Spanish Conquest some 500 years ago. It has been passed down from generation to generation and claims that there is an ancient sunken city in Titicaca's depths. A recent discovery as reported by the BBC, "Archaeologists Probe Lake of Mystery," just may prove this to be an accurate historical record: La Paz, Bolivia, Aug. 24--A stone anchor and animal bones were among the artifacts scientists said they found beneath South America's Lake Titicaca in what is thought to be a giant 1,000-year-old temple. After 18 days of diving below the clear waters of Titicaca, scientists said Tuesday that they had discovered a 660-foot-long, 160-foot-wide temple, a terrace for crops, a pre-Incan road, and a 2,600-foot containing wall. (69)


Around the year 590 AD, at the site they call Ceren in present-day El Salvador, a volcano erupted that provided remains of a village so well preserved that it has been stamped with the inevitable sobriquet of Central American Pompeii. So far, 11 buildings have been uncovered: dwellings, an obsidian workshop, a food storehouse, a sauna for ritual sweat baths, a religious center and a community hall. The structures had adobe walls and roofs of thatch made from a type of grass that is now extinct, apparently killed off by alien grasses from the Old World. Found in the surviving thatch were the bones of mice that had infested the roofs. Ground-penetrating radar surveys have detected the sites of many more dwellings, leading to estimates that 200 to 300 people lived in the village. (101)

Maya pyramid-temple at Tikal, Guatemala (left); temple complex at Madurai, India. (120)

The Aztec description of the Toltecs represents them as the apotheosis of the technical, the skilled, the civilized: The Toltecs were a skillful people; all of their works were good, all were exact, all well made and admirable. Their houses were beautiful, with turquoise mosaics, the walls finished with plaster, clean and marvelous houses, which is to say, Toltec houses, beautifully made, beautiful in everything...(120)

North America


Great Serpent Mound, an Adena construction near Cincinnati, Ohio. (53)

But we know comparatively little about daily life for the mass of the Hopewell or Adena peoples. The few houses excavated seem to be rectangular or ovoid constructions supported on posts and covered with bark or mats. (53)

Stoltman has listed some characteristics that define Mississippian culture, including certain kinds of houses, built by digging wall trenches and then using clay and thatch to form rooms. (53)

Artifacts and mounds of the Mississippian type,…by AD 1800 to AD 900 occurred over much of the Ohio and Missouri river valleys. Between AD 900 and AD 1600, large towns with impressive ceremonial centers were built from Florida to northern Illinois, and from Ohio to eastern Oklahoma, but the heartland of this culture was in the central Mississippi Valley.

The largest prehistoric settlement north of Mexico was Cahokia, in East St. Louis, Illinois. Beginning at about AD 600 the people of Cahokia began building mounds and other features, and by about AD 1250 there were over 100 mounds within the 13 square kilometers of the site. Monk's Mound, an earthen pyramid in the center of Cahokia, is over 30 meters high, 241 by 316 meters at the base, and covers an area of more than 6.5 hectares. Thirty to forty thousand people are estimated to have lived in the environs of Cahokia at about AD 1200 in several large towns, a few smaller towns, and more than forty villages; no doubt people living within a large surrounding area had some contact with Cahokia. (53)

This reconstruction of Cahokia shows the palisade that enclosed the center of the site and some of the seventeen other major structures that existed at about AD 1200. The base of Monk's Mound, the largest pyramid, is larger than the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt. (53)

Outside the great ceremonial centers, Mississippian villages were dispersed settlements of a few score wattle-and-daub structures, supported by internal wooden beams, with floors of packed earth. (53)

After about A.D. 400, the Anasazi began to use pottery and to build large pit houses, most of which were circular or rectangular, from 3 to 7.5 meters in diameter, and covered by log and mud roofs supported on center posts. Interior walls were plastered with mud or faced with stone, access was through a descending passageway, and fireplaces and benches were standard furnishings. At some sites, large ceremonial pit houses, or kivas, were built. After about AD 700, above-ground masonry houses were erected in some Anasazi communities, but the pit house and kiva combination continued to be the basic village type until the end of the thirteenth century AD. (53)


Reconstruction of Pueblo Bonito, as it may have appeared at about AD 1050. (53)

Southwest Hohokam piled adobe building



...a most unusual and mysterious archaeological site with unknown origins and function does lie in the Pacific Ocean 54 degrees of longitude to the east of Angkor. The name of this site is Nan Madol and it consists of approximately 100 artificial islands, constructed out of basalt and coral, which lie in the blue waters of a lagoon off the south-eastern coast of the Micronesian island of Pohnpei. Although the setting is very different, Nan Madol has a number of features in common with Angkor. Scholars believe that the bulk of the temple-islands were completed between AD 800 and AD 1250, precisely the period of Angkor's florescence, but have also detected the traces of an earlier layer of construction - as is again the case at Angkor. The largest structure, Nan Douwas, is oriented to the cardinal directions, with its principal entrance facing west. Adopting the classic 'mandala' form, it consists of two concentric perimeter walls separated by a seawater moat and enclosing a central pyramidial mound. The walls reach 7.6 metres in height and are made from crystalline basalt megaliths, some of which weigh 50 tonnes and are more than 6 metres in length. (161)

...the people of Pohnpei remember a legend that the canals separating their temples were originally dredged by a 'dragon' which offered its assistance to Olosopa and Olosipa, the two mythical founders of the city. Said to have been brothers, Olosopa and Olosipa were 'Ani-Aramach', primordial god-kings, who arrived in boats 'from a land to the west' bringing with them a 'sacred ceremony', which they instituted in their new homeland with the help of wise magicians. The name of the submerged 'city of the gods' under the 'Reef of Heaven' is Khanimweiso and it is not a figment of myth. As part of an archaeological conservation project led by Dr Arthur Saxe of Ohio State University a thorough mapping-survey of large parts of Nan Madol has now been undertaken and has confirmed the existence of extensive undersea ruins, some of them lying at very great depths. The majority have so far been discovered to the east, and a little to the south of the massive breakwaters around Nan Douwas and have included what appear to be a series of tall pillars or columns, standing on flat pedestals on the sloping sides of the island and reaching heights of up to S metres. ...the temples of Nan Madol are linked to ancient local beliefs in life after death. According to these beliefs, which are astonishingly similar to those of the ancient Egyptians, the soul must make a perilous afterlife journey during which it will face many trials and tests. In Egypt this journey takes place in the Duat, a region of the sky...(161)


Reply  Message 16 of 25 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 07/07/2013 04:43

Reply  Message 17 of 25 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 07/07/2013 04:44

Reply  Message 18 of 25 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 07/07/2013 04:50
Greetings and good be to you all,

What or who is the source of all the wars and hatred on planet Earth (Erithoo)? From a biblical stance, the first recorded instance of enmity or ill will began in the Garden of Eden. Enmity is a proclamation of Yahweh Elohim, who according to the book of Exodus is a Man of War. The ill will between the woman seed and the serpent seed over the ages culminated into wars. The Aramaic-Hebrew word for war or warfare is milkhamah, which comes from the primitive root lakham, which means “to feed on.” Essentially, the woman seed and the serpent seed have become food for the gods on the battlefield of planet Earth. The opposite of death and war is life and peace. Knowledge of good and evil (Yah-Weh) deals with half-truths as applied in the Doctrine of Polarity (pa talum shil yashulet), for all truths are but half-truths. So, can man say he or she has the TRUTH? While men and women are preoccupied with half-truths, the tree of life is guarded and protected in the EAST by the Lamassu (Cherubim/Sphinx).

Again, in the first book of the “Holy Bible,” called Genesis (alpha), we read about the enmity between the woman seed and the serpent seed. This hatred is reiterated in the last book of the “Holy Bible,” called Revelation (omega). In it, we read that the Dragon, the primeval serpent, has declared war on the offspring of the woman. So, it was written in the beginning, and so it was written in the end i.e. the alpha and omega of hatred between the serpent seed and the woman seed. An ancient account about hatred between the woman seed and the serpent seed can be found in the narrative of the Lenni Lenabe. The best among them were the turtle men.

The hunters among them were the strongest, the purest, and the most united; displaying their prowess at each of the four corners of the Earth. These mighty hunters of Lenni Lenabe stock are reminiscent of the prowess of Nimrod (son of Kush), the mighty hunter before the LORD, whose dominion in the land called Shinar were called, (a) Babel, (b) Erech, (c) Accad, and (d) Kalneh, in that order. Before the great flood, the ancestors of the Lenni Lenabe (original man) were at war with a great serpent, the snake of old. As an enemy of the original man, many Lenabe were forced to flee their ancestral lands for there was no peace in the lands of old. Subsequently, a great disaster unfolded, the great flood, which was brought on by the great serpent and his entourage. Many Lenabe had perished and many had decided to venture to the land of the Turtle (Tula) for safety and on the Turtle (Ark of Noah) the Lenabe lived and prayed for the restoration of that which was destroyed. After the waters had receded and calmed, the consciousness of the Lenabe was unified and fixed on the journey EAST (waban), the good land, the land of the snake.

The serpent-turtle mound located in the Republic of Ohio, tells the story. In addition, not only is the serpent-turtle mound a sky to ground map of the Draco constellation, but also the serpent-turtle mound depicts, biologically, the spermatozoon (one of the minute, usually actively motile gametes in semen, which serve to fertilize the ovum; a mature male reproductive cell). During the summer solstice, the head of the serpent-turtle mound is oriented at the setting sun. The setting sun is symbolic of ovulation. At any time the ovum (sun) is ready to be infused with calcium and to be fertilized by the genetic content within the nucleus (light messages) of the earthen effigy, which is symbolic of the nucleus of the spermatozoon which seperates during fertilization.

In Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, Justice, and Beauty
Pa Neter Ra (Marrakush ibn al-Banna, Seventh Prince, U-Kish-Chan)
The Elements, Mathematics, and Arithmetic (T.E.M.ARI)
9 x 13
By teaching, we learn

Reply  Message 19 of 25 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 30/01/2014 16:36
171. Salmos 45:9: Hijas de reyes están entre tus ilustres;
Está la REINA a tu diestra con oro de Ofir.



De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Rango temporal: 125 Ma-0 Ma
Cretácico - Presente
Snakes Diversity.jpg
Clasificación científica
Reino: Animalia
Filo: Chordata
Subfilo: Vertebrata
Clase: Sauropsida
Subclase: Diapsida
Superorden: Lepidosauria
Orden: Squamata
Suborden: Serpentes
Linnaeus, 1758
Infraórdenes y familias

Las serpientes (Serpentes) u ofidios (Ophidia)/ETIOPIA/REINA DE SABA/ SABIDURIA / SOPHIA/ SABADO / SHABBAson un suborden de saurópsidos (reptiles) diápsidos pertenecientes al orden Squamata, superorden de los Lepidosaurios, caracterizado por la ausencia de patas (la pitón mantiene diminutas extremidades fruto de su proceso evolutivo)[1] y el cuerpo muy alargado. Se originaron en el período Cretácico.

Las serpientes se caracterizan por la ausencia de extremidades y cuerpo alargado. Algunas poseen mordeduras venenosas, como las cobras y las víboras, que utilizan para matar a sus presas antes de ingerirlas. Otras serpientes, como las boas y pitones, matan a sus presas por constricción.

Se reconocen más de 450 géneros y de 3400 especies.[2] [3] Evidentemente, las serpientes derivan de algún tipo de lagarto, pero los detalles concretos de su origen no están claros.[4]



Características[editar · editar código]

Anatomía de una serpiente.
1 esófago, 2 tráquea, 3 pulmones traqueales, 4 pulmón izquierdo rudimentario, 5 pulmón derecho, 6 corazón, 7 hígado, 8 estómago, 9 saco de aire, 10 vesícula biliar, 11 páncreas, 12 bazo, 13 intestino, 14 testículos, 15 riñones.

Piel[editar · editar código]

La piel de la serpiente está recubierta por escamas. La mayoría de las serpientes utilizan escamas de la parte ventral para desplazarse, aferrándose con ellas a las superficies. Sus párpados se encuentran permanentemente cerrados, pero son en realidad escamas transparentes. Las serpientes cambian de piel periódicamente. A diferencia de otros reptiles, el cambio de piel es realizado en una pieza, como si tirara de una media. Esto se hace a medida que el animal crece y además para reparar heridas y librarse de parásitos externos. La renovación periódica ha convertido a la serpiente en un símbolo de salud y medicina, como se muestra en la vara de Esculapio

Desplazamiento[editar · editar código]

La locomoción se realiza mediante ondulaciones laterales del cuerpo; las escamas ventrales ensanchadas de muchas serpientes impiden el deslizamiento en dirección contraria a la marcha. Algunas serpientes, como ciertas boas y las víboras pueden desplazarse también mediante movimientos musculares de las escamas ventrales con su cuerpo extendido casi en línea recta.

Esqueleto[editar · editar código]

El esqueleto tiene muchas vértebras, 200 en las víboras y 400 en las pitones.

El cráneo está muy modificado respecto al modelo básico diápsido. Los huesos de la mandíbula superior están débilmente unidos al resto del cráneo y el cuadrado puede moverse libremente y posee potentes músculos refractores, lo que permite una enorme abertura de las mandíbulas y la deglución de grandes presas enteras. Los dientes son agudos y curvados hacia atrás y se implantan tanto en el paladar como en el maxilar y el dentario.

Las boas y las pitones poseen rudimentos de las extremidades posteriores y de sus cinturas; en estas serpientes pueden verse unas garras en la parte externa y a cada lado de la cloaca que desempeñan un cierto papel en el coito.

Dentadura[editar · editar código]

Existen varios tipos de dientes, según el hueso sobre el que se implanten: maxilares, pterigoideos, palatinos, dentarios y premaxilares. Los dientes maxilares son los más variados y los únicos que pueden estar asociados a glándulas venenosas; se pueden distinguir cuatro tipos principales:

  • Aglifos.

Son dientes macizos, prensiles, curvados hacia atrás para sujetar la presa y no están diseñados para inocular veneno. Es el caso de muchos colúbridos, boidos y pitónidos. En general son serpientes inofensivas para el hombre, con excepción de las grandes constrictoras (pitones, anacondas).

  • Opistoglifos.

Son dientes acanalados situados en la parte posterior de la mandíbula y conectados con glándulas de veneno, constituyendo un sistema de inoculación primitivo. Dado que para inyectar el veneno debe morder con la parte posterior de la boca, normalmente son poco peligrosas para el hombre. Este es el caso de la culebra bastarda (Malpolon monspessulanus). No obstante, las especies de gran tamaño pueden producir graves mordeduras e incluso la muerte, como Dispholidus typus, del África subsahariana.

  • Proteroglifos.

Son dientes pequeños y fijos situados en la parte delantera de la boca, con un canal más o menos cerrado. Las cobras y las mambas poseen estos dientes. Algunas especies, como la cobra escupidora (Naja nigricollis), los tienen modificados para escupir el veneno a más de cuatro metros de distancia.[5]

  • Solenoglifos.

Se trata de dos largos colmillos móviles en parte anterior de la mandíbula; son huecos con un canal interior cerrado y conectado con glándulas venenosas. Los colmillos se pliegan sobre el paladar superior cuando el animal cierra la boca y se enderezan rápidamente cuando la abre. Es el sistema de inoculación más eficaz. Este tipo de dentición es característico de los vipéridos.

Órganos internos[editar · editar código]

Flechas rojas: órganos receptores de infrarrojos; flechas negras: orificios nasales. Arriba, una pitón; abajo, una serpiente de cascabel




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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 10/05/2016 16:43
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Reply  Message 21 of 25 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 05/12/2016 15:03
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 19/11/2016 23:03
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 19/11/2016 23:13
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 20/11/2016 21:48
Resultado de imagen para diameter pi 3.14
La razon de la circunferencia y el diametro es obvio que es el numero PI.
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 20/11/2016 21:50
Resultado de imagen para diameter pi 3.14
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Resultado de imagen para diameter pi 3.14
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Resultado de imagen para diameter pi 3.14
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Resultado de imagen para diameter pi 3.14
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 27/11/2016 00:00
Resultado de imagen para LEVITICO 23:36
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 29/11/2016 00:37
Resultado de imagen para MARY MAGDALENE PI
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Resultado de imagen para talamo tercer ojo

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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 27/11/2016 00:02
Resultado de imagen para LEVITICO 23:36
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From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 29/11/2016 20:38
15. Apocalipsis 1:8 Yo soy el ALFA
y la Omega, principio y fin, dice el Señor, el que es y que era y que ha de venir, el Todopoderoso.

16. Apocalipsis 1:11 que decía: Yo soy el ALFA y la Omega, el primero y el último. Escribe en un libro lo que ves, y envíalo a las siete iglesias que están en Asia: a Efeso, Esmirna, Pérgamo, Tiatira, Sardis, Filadelfia y Laodicea.
17. Apocalipsis 2:27 y las regirá con vara de hierro, y serán quebradas como vaso de ALFArero; como yo también la he recibido de mi Padre;
18. Apocalipsis 21:6 Y me dijo: Hecho está. Yo soy el ALFA y la Omega, el principio y el fin. Al que tuviere sed, yo le daré gratuitamente de la fuente del agua de la vida.
19. Apocalipsis 22:13 Yo soy el ALFA y la Omega, el principio y el fin, el primero y el último

Reply  Message 22 of 25 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 16/01/2019 17:14
Resultado de imagen para ISLAND GIORGIO VENICE
Resultado de imagen para MAQUINA DEL TIEMPO DE VENECIA
Resultado de imagen para VENICE SNAKE
Resultado de imagen para genesis 22:15,18
Resultado de imagen para MAGDALENE NEW MEXICO
Resultado de imagen para GALAXY PHI
Resultado de imagen para LEONARDO DA VINCI VENECIA
Resultado de imagen para BELLAS QUE SON LAS MATEMATICAS
Resultado de imagen para einstein estupidez infinita
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Resultado de imagen para MEXICO PHI NUMBER GOLDEN NUMBER
the Apple
Resultado de imagen para HAWKING CYGNUS
Resultado de imagen para MAGDALENE NEW MEXICO
Resultado de imagen para cristo no es dios
Resultado de imagen para MAGDALENE NEW MEXICO
Resultado de imagen para MAGDALENE NEW MEXICO
milky way in Simple Gematria Equals: 119 ( m 13 i9 l 12 k 11 y 25 0 w 23 a1 y 25 )
queen mary in Simple Gematria Equals: 119 ( q 17 u 21 e5 e5 n 14 0 m 13 a1 r 18 y 25  
hebrew calendar in Simple Gematria Equals: 119 ( h8 e5 b2 r 18 e5 w 23 0 c3 a1 l 12 e5 n 14 d4 a1 r 18
mary magdalene in Simple Gematria Equals: 119 ( m 13 a1 r 18 y 25 0 m 13 a1 g7 d4 a1 l 12 e5 n 14 e5  
Resultado de imagen para MAGDALENE NEW MEXICO

Reply  Message 23 of 25 on the subject 
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