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Reply  Message 1 of 5 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999  (Original message) Sent: 21/09/2012 04:08
The American Wisdom Series

Presents July 4, 1776

How many people know that July 4, 1776, was a benchmark not only in secular world history but in Biblical history? Did you know that it was the exact fulfillment of Bible prophecy?

It began with the covenant God made with His people at Mt. Sinai, and the conditions were these:

Leviticus 26:3
If ye walk in my statutes, and keep my commandments, and do them;
... then great national blessings would follow, vs. 4-13.
Leviticus 26:14
But if ye will not hearken unto me, and will not do all these commandments;
... then great national cursings would follow, vs. 15-22, including a punishment for "seven times".
Leviticus 26:23
And if ye will not be reformed by me by these things, but will walk contrary unto me;

[24] Then will I also walk contrary unto you, and will punish you yet seven times for your sins.

God stated that He would punish His people for "seven times" (a time is 360 years, so seven times would be 2520 years) and would scatter them among the nations if they did not follow His laws and statutes, which they did follow for awhile but then turned away. Space in this article does not permit an in-depth study of the migrations of the tribes of Israel, a subject for another time, but surely it is a foundational study essential to understanding Biblical prophecy.

You see, it is very easy to document that England represents Ephraim, a company of nations, and the United States represents Manasseh, a great people (Gen. 48). God made a covenant with Abraham that his offspring would become as numerous as the stars of the sky and they would inherit great national wealth and blessings. Those Birthright Blessings were eventually split between Joseph's two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh.

*Note: If you do not know who the so-called lost 10 tribes of the House of Israel are and where they dwell today, then contact Artisan Publishers at www.artisanpublishers.com and purchase the little booklet The Abrahamic Covenant, by E. Raymond Capt.) or log unto pamphlets #1064 and #1020 on this web site. It will get you started in the right direction... back home to your heritage!

God then repeated that He would chastise His people seven times in vs. 28:

Leviticus 26:28
Then I will walk contrary unto you also in fury; and I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your sins.

Leviticus 26:33
And I will scatter you among the heathen, and will draw out a sword after you: and your land shall be desolate, and your cities waste.

This is where it truly gets exciting! The 2520 years would commence with the captivity of each of the tribes of Israel. Challenge anyone on this! Look up the date of the captivity of the tribe of Manasseh by the king of Assyria!  Again, E. Raymond Capt's booklet "The Abrahamic Covenant" or the "Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets", will give you a good start.

You will find that Tiglath-pileser III in 745 BC records the conquest of Israel and mentions the exact area where Manasseh had been settled. When you add 2520 years to this date, remembering that there is no year "0", you arrive at 1776 (and I will add "July 4th" for the reasons disclosed later in this study.) Coincidence? Not a chance! God's plan and His timetable are perfect.

I have often said that the Industrial Revolution could not, and did not, occur until the American Revolution had occurred. Why? The 2520 years had to expire and begin the time when true Israel would no longer be the "tail", but would become the "head" of the nations. Who is the head, the superpower of superpowers today?

Now let's look closely and, if we can "see", we will see God's divine "stamp" on the date July 4th, 1776.

One of the significances of this date are found in the remarkable "coincidences" surrounding the deaths of our 2nd and 3rd Presidents, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. The following quotations are from Funk & Wagnalls Special Edition entitled "The Presidents", published by The Curtis Publishing Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, 46202:

"John Adams died on July 4, 1826, the same day as Thomas Jefferson. The following comment on the significance of this coincidence appeared in the July 8, 1826, issue of the Post: "A gentleman arrived from the Eastward, last evening, informs, that the venerable JOHN ADAMS, died at his seat at Quincy, near Boston, on the fourth of July, about five o'clock, P.M. but a few hours after the sage of Monticello!-United in the grand political concerns of life, thus in death they are not divided! The last words of John Adams were said to have been, "Thomas Jefferson still survives..." not knowing that Jefferson had preceded him in death by a few hours."
Just before he expired, John Adams remarked "Thomas Jefferson still survives". One Early American History textbook calls it, "an extraordinary statement".

Concerning Thomas Jefferson, "The Presidents" volume continues...

"On July 4, 1826 he died on the same day as John Adams, and exactly 50 years (emphasize ours) after he had written the Declaration of Independence. The death notices of the two friends appeared side-by-side in the July 8, 1826, issue of the Post. Jefferson's read: The venerable patriarch and sage, the immortal author of the Declaration of Independence, THOMAS JEFFERSON, Esq. expired at his seat, at Monticello, on the fourth of July, at ten minutes before one o'clock, just fifty years since the promulgation, in the Halls of Congress, of the Liberties of this country. His death had been looked for two or three days before it took place, as he was confined to his bed during that time by severe indisposition. He was sensible of his approaching dissolution, and prescribed the mode of his interment. Well might he have exclaimed in the language of the psalmist, "Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word, for my eyes have seen thy salvation."..."
Thomas Jefferson apparently "knew" two or three days ahead of time that he was going to die on July 4, 1826. Both Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died on July 4, 1826, exactly 50 years from the signing of the Declaration of Independence, within a few hours of each other! Coincidence? Not in this case.

The number 50 in Biblical numerics denotes a "Jubilee" and is comprised of 5 (the number of grace) times 10 (the number of law). Reference appendix 10 if you have a Companion Bible. The Jubilee year was the year in which all debts public and private are released and liberty is proclaimed throughout the land.

Leviticus 25:10
And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.
From this verse, Leviticus 25:10, which declares the 50th year of the Jubilee, the words "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof" are taken and inscribed on our LIBERTY BELL. It is most fitting that a quote from the Book of Leviticus be inscribed on our most precious symbol of liberty. For it is in this great book, through the adherence to the laws and statutes contained therein, that TRUE LIBERTY is granted.

And so every 50 years the Liberty Bell was to be rung, i.e. the Scripture was to be fulfilled, the law from Lev. 25:10 inscribed on the Bell was to be obeyed, and "liberty was to be proclaimed throughout the land". But guess what? It wasn't proclaimed and 20 years after it should have been, it "cracked" for the second time, and the expansion of that crack rendered the Bell "Unringable". And believe it or not, it occurred on Washington's Birthday in 1846, just a few months short of the 70th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence! For those who have "eyes to see", the number 70 in Biblical Numerics denotes the "Restoration of Israel".

Did you know that at one time in this great nation in order to be a judge you had to thoroughly know both the books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Today the judges must make sure that they are NOT TAUGHT in our schools nor mentioned in their courtrooms. Of course the streets of our cities are not safe to walk at night, and our schools must be equipped with metal detectors and police, and so the liberties of the people have been given over to the ungodly and they "Proclaim Fear Throughout the Land".

Continuing now with the deaths of Adams and Jefferson, it also is no coincidence that John Adam's last dying words were "Thomas Jefferson still survives"... indeed a strange saying for a dying man. Why? Well, since it is not at all uncommon for those in the transition of dying to claim they see or recognize a loved one, there is little doubt that John Adams saw Thomas Jefferson in his room and together they departed for "home", mission accomplished. What was the comment published in the Post in the July 8th, 1826 edition that we read? "Thus in death they are not divided." And so they were not!

That these two great men were used by our Father to help lay the foundation of this "One nation under God" is without question or dispute.  God truly blesses America, and John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were among those Presidents who certainly proved to be a blessing to this nation. Their "coincidental" death on the First Jubilee of our nation was no coincidence, for the hand of God was upon these two. For you see, the history of our great country is but a continuation of the History of the people of the Bible.

So on President's Day let us give thanks for the blessings and freedoms that we still have in this One Nation Under God and let us remember the great men who served as her President.

One more interesting note: James Monroe, the 5th President of the United States, also died on July 4th. Three of the first five Presidents of this great nation died on the 4th of July. Isn't that amazing?

The "American Wisdom Series"


Published by:

Rhine Publishing Co.
199 Joseph Drive
Middletown, PA 17057


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Reply  Message 2 of 5 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 18/11/2012 15:54

Part II - NASA

ranger7-launch.jpg (20287 bytes)

The launch of Ranger 7 (first successful US mission to the moon) as viewed from Cape Canaveral and the eventual impact site. 7/28/1964.

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Sky over JPL at Surveyor 3 landing in Oceanus Procellarum. April 20th, 1967 12:04 AM GMT (Hitler's Birthday). Vb-nazi-close.gif (47684 bytes)
Werner Von Braun (second from left) and German Rocket team in Alabama in the 1950's.

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Apollo program patch. "Orion/Osiris" to the moon.

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The view from Fra Mauro (Apollo 14 landing site) at launch of Alan Shepard's sub orbital flight. May 5th, 1961.

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The launch of John Glenn's Friendship 7 in 1962.

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The view from the Apollo 11 "Temple" at Apollo 8 Lunar orbit insertion.

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The Apollo 11 landing site -- the 33rd US mission to the Moon -- 33 minutes after landing during Aldrin and Armstrong's "communion ceremony."  

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Apollo 12 landing site, at the same moment. (Orion was in the same location 33 minutes earlier, during the actual landing).

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Apollo 12 landing. 33 months after the landing of Surveyor 3 in the same location.

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Proposed Apollo 13 landing.

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Apollo 14 landing at Fra Mauro (Alan Shepard commanding).

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Apollo 15 launch sky and Lunar module "Falcon" landing at Hadley Rille.

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Horus, the "Falcon God" of ancient Egypt. Also known as "Apollo" in the Greek tradition.

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apollo16.jpg (44487 bytes) Apollo 16 Lunar Module "Orion" arrives on the Moon - April 20th, 1972 (Hitler's birthday). "Orion" was the only LEM not destroyed by being deliberatly crashed into the Lunar surface.

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Sky over Apollo 16 landing site.


And over JPL at the same moment.

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"Orion/Osiris" arrives on the moon - from the perspective of Mission Control, Houston


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The Ascent of Apollo 17 as mankind ends his first exploration of the Moon - December 14th, 1972.

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CYDONIA 76.jpg (418318 bytes)

Viking 1 images the "Face" over Cydonia - July 25th, 1976.

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MIPL.jpg (154644 bytes)

The Multi-Mission Imaging Processing Laboratory's VAX system is decommissioned at JPL. 1:00 PM 9/28/95.


Path-land.jpg (87389 bytes)

Mars Pathfinder landing site (19.5° N by 33.3° W) - July 4th, 1997.


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View from the Pyramids as Mars Global Surveyor re-images the Face for the first time in 20 years. 4/5/98.

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And from JPL at the same moment.

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Sky over JPL at release of second Cydonia MGS image of the "City." 4/14/98 6:55 PM PST


  And a few minutes later as the image is released to the main mirror site.

JPL-MGS-CYDONIA22.jpg (70031 bytes)

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Sky over Giza as MGS releases the last of the new Cydonia images. 4/24/98 8:44 AM PDT.  

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Three views from the Baikonour Cosmodrome as Russia launches the Zarya ("Rising Sun" - a.k.a. Horus) module for the IS(I)S space station from launch pad 333. November 20th, 1998 6:40 AM GMT. launch1.jpg (18129 bytes)

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The launch of STS-88 and the Unity module.

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The capture of Zarya by STS-88.

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sts-88-CAPTURE.gif (12036 bytes)

sts-88-dock-livedata.gif (45224 bytes) The docking of Zarya and Unity to create IS(I)S.

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First STS-88 EVA.

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The Power up of Zarya.

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IS(I)S activation command sequence.

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Sky over Goddard Space Flight Center (control center for SOHO) at loss of contact with SOHO. 6/24/98 7:16 EDT.

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And from the pyramids at Giza at the same moment.


  And again at Goddard when the space craft is "rescued." 9/16/98 1:30 PM EDT.

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Closest approach of Comet J1 1998 (SOHO) May 20,1998. 5:56 GMT  
  Sky over Kennedy Space Center at world premiere of the movie "Armaggeddon."

"I'm sorry, I've gotta go. They told us they were staring the movie at eight sharp and they wouldn't wait." -- Ben Affleck to an interviewer on - E! Entertainment Television outside the theater at KSC. 6/29/98 7:55 PM EDT.

ARMAG-PREMIERE.jpg (90328 bytes)

Reply  Message 3 of 5 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 21/11/2012 15:28
BARILOCHENSE6999 Enviado: 21/11/2012 11:58
Marzo 30
      1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31  
Autor:Paolo Bonavoglia

El calendario funciona a partir del 1 Enero del -4712 (4713 A. C.) que es el día 0 del calendario juliano.
Al pasar del calendario juliano al gregoriano desaparecieron los días desde el 5 al 14 de octubre de 1582.
Para los años anteriores al -45 (46 A. C.) año en el que Julio Cesar introdujo el calendario juliano, la fecha se expresa según un calendario juliano retroactivo y no según el calendario de Numa entonces vigente. Para el periodo entre -45 (46 A.C.) y 8 D.C. se intentó cambiar el nombre y la longitud de los meses y el error en los años bisiestos que computaban.

Eventos astronómicos
Luna nueva Mièrcoles 22 Marzo 30 17.48'
Cuarto creciente Jueves 30 Marzo 30 22.15'
Luna llena Mièrcoles 8 Marzo 30 11.25'
Cuarto menguante Mièrcoles 15 Marzo 30 2.36'
Eclipse ningún eclipse de sol
ningún eclipse de luna

La hora está en T.U. o sea tiempo universal del meridiano de Greenwich; las fases de la luna son aproximadamente con error máximo de 2m; pero en el eclipse de sol la señalización de la zona visible es solamente indicativa.

Cuando se hizo la reforma del papa Gregorio, tendria que haberse atrasado 12 dias en lugar de 10 debido a que se llevo el equinoccio al mismo que estaba en contexto del concilio de Nisea, que fue en el 325 DC,  y no del año de la resurreccion del Señor. Es por eso que la Luna llena me aparece en  el 8 de Marzo del año 30 cuando tendria que tambien ser el 6 de Marzo, al igual que en el año 1776, que fue el año de la Independencia de EEUU, teniendo en cuenta que 1746 años solares equivalen practicamente a un numero entero de ciclos lunares.

Génesis 3

1. Pero la serpiente era astuta, más que todos los animales del campo que Jehová Dios había hecho; la cual dijo a la mujer: ¿Conque Dios os ha dicho: No comáis de todo árbol del huerto?
2. Y la mujer respondió a la serpiente: Del fruto de los árboles del huerto podemos comer;
3. pero del fruto del árbol que está en medio del huerto dijo Dios: No comeréis de él, ni le tocaréis, para que no muráis.
4. Entonces la serpiente dijo a la mujer: No moriréis;
5. sino que sabe Dios que el día que comáis de él, serán abiertos vuestros ojos, y seréis como Dios, sabiendo el bien y el mal.
6. Y vio la mujer que el árbol era bueno para comer, y que era agradable a los ojos, y árbol codiciable para alcanzar la sabiduría; y tomó de su fruto, y comió; y dio también a su marido, el cual comió así como ella.
7. Entonces fueron abiertos los ojos de ambos, y conocieron que estaban desnudos; entonces cosieron hojas de higuera, y se hicieron delantales.
8. Y oyeron la voz de Jehová Dios que se paseaba en el huerto, al aire del día; y el hombre y su mujer se escondieron de la presencia de Jehová Dios entre los árboles del huerto.
9. Mas Jehová Dios llamó al hombre, y le dijo: ¿Dónde estás tú?
10. Y él respondió: Oí tu voz en el huerto, y tuve miedo, porque estaba desnudo; y me escondí.
11. Y Dios le dijo: ¿Quién te enseñó que estabas desnudo? ¿Has comido del árbol de que yo te mandé no comieses?
12. Y el hombre respondió: La mujer que me diste por compañera me dio del árbol, y yo comí.
13. Entonces Jehová Dios dijo a la mujer: ¿Qué es lo que has hecho? Y dijo la mujer: La serpiente me engañó, y comí.
14. Y Jehová Dios dijo a la serpiente: Por cuanto esto hiciste, maldita serás entre todas las bestias y entre todos los animales del campo; sobre tu pecho andarás, y polvo comerás todos los días de tu vida.
15. Y pondré enemistad entre ti y la mujer, y entre tu simiente y la simiente suya; ésta te herirá en la cabeza, y tú le herirás en el calcañar.
16. A la mujer dijo: Multiplicaré en gran manera los dolores en tus preñeces; con dolor darás a luz los hijos; y tu deseo será para tu marido, y él se enseñoreará de ti.
17. Y al hombre dijo: Por cuanto obedeciste a la voz de tu mujer, y comiste del árbol de que te mandé diciendo: No comerás de él; maldita será la tierra por tu causa; con dolor comerás de ella todos los días de tu vida.
18. Espinos y cardos te producirá, y comerás plantas del campo.
19. Con el sudor de tu rostro comerás el pan hasta que vuelvas a la tierra, porque de ella fuiste tomado; pues polvo eres, y al polvo volverás.
20. Y llamó Adán el nombre de su mujer, Eva, por cuanto ella era madre de todos los vivientes.
21. Y Jehová Dios hizo al hombre y a su mujer túnicas de pieles, y los vistió.
22. Y dijo Jehová Dios: He aquí el hombre es como uno de nosotros, sabiendo el bien y el mal; ahora, pues, que no alargue su mano, y tome también del árbol de la vida, y coma, y viva para siempre. (Wall STREET/TREE OF LIFE/911/SALMO 119/SALMO DE LA LEY)
23. Y lo sacó Jehová del huerto del Edén, para que labrase la tierra de que fue tomado.
Echó, pues, fuera al hombre, y puso al oriente del huerto de Edén querubines, y una espada encendida que se revolvía por todos lados, para guardar el camino del árbol de la vida. (CRISTO EN LA RESURRECCION ABRIO EL CAMINO AL ARBOL DE LA VIDA. EL ARBOL ES UNA REFERENCIA AL TERCER DIA DE LA CREACION Y ES UNA OBVIA REFERENCIA AL ARBOL GENEALOGICO, OSEA EL SANTO GRIAL. EL ARBOL SIMBOLIZA A LA MUJER Y EL FRUTO EL HIJO)
Wall Street 
Nombre de una calle de la c. de Nueva York (E.U.A.), famosa por albergar la sede de la bolsa.
BARILOCHENSE6999 20/11/2012 13:06
BARILOCHENSE6999 18/11/2012 11:51
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BARILOCHENSE6999 18/11/2012 11:50
BARILOCHENSE6999 18/11/2012 11:49
BARILOCHENSE6999 16/11/2012 11:43
BARILOCHENSE6999 15/11/2012 14:16
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BARILOCHENSE6999 15/11/2012 13:20
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BARILOCHENSE6999 12/11/2012 01:00

Reply  Message 4 of 5 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 22/11/2012 16:39


Flags of the American Revolution

The first flags adopted by our colonial forebears were symbolic of their struggles with the wilderness of the new land. Beavers, pine trees, rattlesnakes, anchors and various other insignia were affixed to different banners with mottoes such as "Hope," "Liberty," "Appeal to Heaven," or "Don't Tread on Me."

In the early days of the Revolution, there were colonial and regimental flags by the score. The Boston Liberty flag, consisting of nine alternate red and white horizontal stripes, flew over the Liberty Tree, a fine old elm in Hanover Square in Boston, where the Sons of Liberty met.


Pine Tree flag

Still another was a white flag with a green pine tree and the inscription, "An Appeal to Heaven." This particular flag became familiar on the seas as the ensign of the cruisers commissioned by General Washington, and was noted by many English newspapers of the time. [Available from FlagLine.com.]


Don't Tread on Me flag

Flags with a rattlesnake theme also gained increasing prestige with colonists. The slogan "Don't Tread on Me" almost invariably appeared on rattlesnake flags. A flag of this type was the standard of the South Carolina Navy. Another, the Gadsden flag, consisted of a yellow field with a rattlesnake in a spiral coil, poised to strike, in the center. Below the snake was the motto, "Don't Tread on Me." [Available from FlagLine.com.]


Culpeper Minutemen Flag

Similar was the Culpepper flag, banner of the Minutemen of Culpepper (now spelled Culpeper) County, Virginia. It consisted of a white field with a rattlesnake in a spiral coil in the center. Above the rattlesnake was the legend "The Culpepper Minute Men" and below, the motto, "Liberty or Death" as well as "Don't Tread on Me." [Available from FlagLine.com.]

In December of 1775, an anonymous Philadelphia correspondent wrote to Bradford's Pennsylvania journal concerning the symbolic use of the snake. He began the letter by saying:

I recollected that her eye excelled in brightness that of any other animal, and that she has no eye-lids. She may, therefore, be esteemed an emblem of vigilance. She never begins an attack, nor, when once engaged, ever surrenders. She is, therefore, an emblem of magnanimity and true courage.

It was probably the deadly bite of the rattler, however, which was foremost in the minds of its designers, and the threatening slogan "Don't Tread on Me" added further significance to the design.


For more of the story of the rattlesnake flags of early America, click here.


Fort Moultrie flag

The Moultrie flag was the first distinctive American flag displayed in the South. It flew over the ramparts of the fort on Sullivan's Island, which lies in the channel leading to Charleston, South Carolina, when the British fleet attacked on June 28, 1776. The British ships bombarded the fort for 10 hours. But the garrison, consisting of some 375 regulars -- and a few militia, under the command of Col. William Moultrie, put up such a gallant defense that the British were forced to withdraw under cover of darkness. This victory saved the southern Colonies from invasion for another two years.

The flag was blue, as were the uniforms of the men of the garrison, and it bore a white crescent in the upper corner next to the staff, like the silver crescents the men wore on their caps, inscribed with the words "Liberty or Death." [Available from FlagLine.com.]


Rhode Island Regiment flag

The Maritime Colony of Rhode Island had its own flag, which was carried at Brandywine, Trenton, and Yorktown. It bore an anchor, 13 stars, and the word "Hope." Its white stars in a blue field are believed by many to have influenced the design of our national flag. [Available from FlagLine.com.]

The Army preferred its regimental flags on the battlefield instead of the Stars and Stripes. A popular form of the U.S. flag that was used in battle had the obverse (front) of the Great Seal in the canton.


13-Star Betsy Ross Flag

The Army also used the Stars and Stripes with 13 stars in a circle. The Stars and Stripes was officially used in Army artillery units in 1834, and in infantry units in 1842. [Available from FlagLine.com.]

Note: Our information on the history and traditions of the American flag is based on primary source materials from the Federal Consumer Information Center.





















Reply  Message 5 of 5 on the subject 
From: BARILOCHENSE6999 Sent: 22/11/2012 16:57


De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
الجمهورية اللبنانية
Al-Ŷumhūriyya Al-Lubnāniyya'
República Libanesa
Flag of Lebanon.svg
Coat of Arms of Lebanon.svg
Lema: kullunā li-l-watan, li-l-ulà li-l-`alam
(árabe: «todos por la patria, la gloria y la bandera»)
Himno: kullunā li-l-watan, li-l-ulà li-l-`alam

Lebanon (orthographic projection).svg

(y ciudad más poblada)

33º 54' N 35º 32' E
Idioma oficial Árabe
‎Gentilicio Libanés, -esa
Forma de gobierno República parlamentaria confesional
Primer Ministro
Michel Sleiman
Najib Mikati
 • Fecha
De Francia
22 de noviembre de 1943
Superficie Puesto 160.º
 • Total 10.452 km²
 • % agua 1,6%
Fronteras 454 km
Población total Puesto 123.º
 • Total 4.200.000 (est. 2008)
 • Densidad 358 hab/km²
 • Total (2009) US$ 51.474.000.000
IDH (2011) Straight Line Steady.svg0,739 (71.º) – Alto
Moneda Libra libanesa (LBP)
Huso horario CET (UTC+2)
Código ISO 422 / LBN / LB
Dominio Internet .lb
Prefijo telefónico +961
Prefijo radiofónico ODA-ODZ
Miembro de: ONU, LA
  1. Es cooficial el francés. También se usan el inglés y el armenio.

El Líbano (en árabe: لبنان Lubnān), oficialmente República Libanesa (الجمهوريّة اللبنانيّة Al-Ŷumhūriyya Al-Lubnāniyya), es un país de Oriente Próximo que limita al sur con Israel, al norte y al este con Siria, y está bañado por el mar Mediterráneo al oeste.

Líbano era hasta los años 1970 el centro financiero de Oriente Próximo, que le valió el sobrenombre de «la Suiza de Oriente Próximo». Esta opulencia monetaria fue rota por el terrible enfrentamiento civil entre libaneses (1975–1990), que destruyó un equilibrio político ejemplar. Las luchas internas y los conflictos con Israel —que invadió el país en 1982— aún perduran.

Hacia julio de 2006 el país había recuperado un considerable grado de estabilidad y desarrollo, la reconstrucción de Beirut estaba casi completa[1] y un número creciente de turistas volvía a acudir al país.[2] Entonces se produjo la guerra del Líbano de 2006, de un mes de duración, entre el ejército de Israel y Hezbollah, la cual causó un número significativo de muertes civiles e importantes daños en la infraestructura del país. El 14 de agosto se alcanzó el alto al fuego tras un llamamiento del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU.[3]


Líbano, heredero de Fenicia y crisol histórico de comunidades cristianas y musulmanas, fue ocupado por el Imperio otomano en el siglo XVI. La muerte de 12000 cristianos en la guerra entre éstos y los druzos en 1860 provocó el desembarco de tropas francesas para proteger a los cristianos maronitas. Tras la derrota turca en la Primera Guerra Mundial, el protectorado de Francia se prolongó hasta 1943, año en que el país se constituyó como Estado (si bien había proclamado su independencia el 26 de noviembre de 1941, pero ésta no fue reconocida hasta dos años más tarde). En 1946 las tropas francesas abandonaron Líbano.

En 1958 estalló la guerra civil entre musulmanes pan-arabistas influidos por el Presidente Nasser de Egipto y fuerzas del Gobierno libanés del cristiano Camille Chamoun, a cuyo requerimiento desembarcaron tropas estadounidenses en Beirut.

En 1970 la OLP se instaló en Beirut, expulsada de Jordania, e incrementó los ataques sobre Israel desde el Sur de Líbano.

En 1975 comenzó la guerra civil libanesa entre las comunidades cristiana maronita y musulmana, al atacar fuerzas falangistas cristianas a las guerrillas palestinas de la OLP. En 1976, tras el incremento de las matanzas (de palestinos por parte de fuerzas cristianas en Karantina y Tel el-Za'atar, y de cristianos por parte de fuerzas palestinas en Damour), las fuerzas de paz de la Liga Árabe interviene con 30 mil soldados, por petición del Parlamento Libanés durante la presidencia de Suleiman Franjieh, ocupando así todo el país salvo el extremo sur para después retirarse dejando a cargo al ejército sirio. El ejército israelí ocupó el sur de Líbano en 1978 como respuesta a la muerte de civiles israelíes por ataques de la OLP. El mismo año las Naciones Unidas enviaron una fuerza multinacional, la (FINUL), al sur de Líbano; el ejército sirio bombardeó el sector cristiano de Beirut (Beirut Este). En 1980 y 1981 se incrementaron los choques entre las fuerzas israelíes, milicias libanesas apoyadas por Israel y la OLP en el sur del país.

En 1982 Israel invadió el sur de Líbano con el pretexto de expulsar las guerrillas de la OLP, dirigidas por Yaser Arafat, atacando a las fuerzas sirias en el valle de la Bekaa y asediando el sector musulmán de Beirut (Beirut Oeste); fuerzas estadounidenses, francesas e italianas fueron estacionadas en la capital para ayudar en la evacuación de unos 11000 miembros de la OLP; tras la salida de las tropas internacionales de Beirut, el ejército israelí ocupó el sector musulmán de la ciudad (Beirut Oeste) y los israelíes permitieron la entrada de fuerzas falangistas cristianas que cometieron las masacres de los campos de refugiados palestinos de Sabra y Chatila (Beirut), lo que fuerza la retirada israelí de Beirut Oeste y la vuelta de las fuerzas estadounidenses, francesas e italianas. En mayo de 1983, Israel y Líbano alcanzaron un acuerdo para retirar las tropas israelíes. Finalmente, en mayo de 2000, Israel retiró por decisión unilateral todas sus tropas del sur del Líbano confiando que FINUL evitaría futuros ataques de Hezbolá contra su territorio.

El gobierno libanés no alcanzó hacer cumplir la resolución 1559 de Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU que obligaba a desarmar a las milicias armadas libanesas y tomar el control de su frontera sur, controlada por Hezbolá para proteger la frontera con Israel. En julio de 2006, tras una incursión fronteriza de Hezbolá en territorio israelí que se saldó con la muerte de ocho soldados israelíes y la captura de dos más, se produce la crisis israelo-libanesa de 2006 con el bombardeo de gran parte de la infraestructura del país destruyendo gran parte de ella y una respuesta armada de Hezbolá con armas provistas por Irán y Siria sobre las ciudades del norte de Israel, dejando patente una vez más la injerencia de fuerzas militares extranjeras en los asuntos internos libaneses.

Citando datos del gobierno libanés, el día 6 de agosto, ACNUR informó de que 550.000 desplazados han sido acogidos por familias, 130.000 se encuentran en refugios improvisados, y cerca de 200.000 han cruzado la frontera con Siria.[4] También impera una grave crisis económica. En agosto una resolución de la ONU decide incrementar la fuerza multinacional FINUL y se llega a un acuerdo de cese de violencia con la economía e infraestructuras destruidas y unos 1271 muertos libaneses.

[editar] Gobierno y política

Grand Serail, la sede del gobierno libanés en el centro de Beirut

La República Libanesa todavía se gobierna según la Constitución de 1926, reformada con posterioridad y revisada en profundidad en 1990 por la ONU. Según la Constitución, la Asamblea de Representantes (Majlis al-Nuwab) es el cuerpo legislativo y es elegida por periodos quinquenales por el pueblo libanés mediante sufragio universal. La Asamblea de Representantes es multirreligiosa.[5]

El poder ejecutivo recae sobre el Presidente de la República Libanesa, el cual nombra para tal función al Primer Ministro y al resto de miembros del Gabinete, el cual es quien ejerce dicha función, reservándose el Presidente de la República amplias competencias.[5]

Por ley, el cargo de Presidente de la República debe ser ocupado siempre por un cristiano maronita, el de Primer Ministro por un suní y el de Presidente del Senado por un chiita, con el fin de que ninguna minoría del país pueda quedar discriminada por el gobierno.[5]

El símbolo del país es el cedro, cuyos bosques cubrían todo el Líbano en la Antigüedad y cuya madera era uno de los principales productos de exportación ya en tiempos de los fenicios. Preside de forma solitaria tanto la bandera como el escudo nacional.


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